## 2 Fe2O3 (s hematite) + 3 C (s graphite) → 4 Fe (s alpha) + 3 CO2 (g)

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## Reaction Type:

Single displacement/Oxidation-reduction

## Stoichiometry

Enter a mass or volume in one of the boxes below. Upon hitting submit, the stoichiometric equivalents will be calculated for the remaining reactants and products. All gases are assumed to be at STP.

 Heat Added: kJ Fe2O3          Mass: g C              Mass: g Fe             Mass: g CO2            Mass: g or Gas Volume: L

## Enthalpy of Reaction

[4ΔHf(Fe (s alpha)) + 3ΔHf(CO2 (g))] - [2ΔHf(Fe2O3 (s hematite)) + 3ΔHf(C (s graphite))]
[4(0) + 3(-393.51)] - [2(-824.25) + 3(0)] = 467.97 kJ
467.97 kJ     (endothermic)

## Entropy Change

[4ΔSf(Fe (s alpha)) + 3ΔSf(CO2 (g))] - [2ΔSf(Fe2O3 (s hematite)) + 3ΔSf(C (s graphite))]
[4(27.28) + 3(213.68)] - [2(87.4) + 3(5.69)] = 558.29 J/K
558.29 J/K     (increase in entropy)

## Free Energy of Reaction (at 298.15 K)

From ΔGf° values:
[4ΔGf(Fe (s alpha)) + 3ΔGf(CO2 (g))] - [2ΔGf(Fe2O3 (s hematite)) + 3ΔGf(C (s graphite))]
[4(0) + 3(-394.38)] - [2(-742.24) + 3(0)] = 301.34 kJ
301.34 kJ     (nonspontaneous)

From ΔG = ΔH - TΔS:
301.52 kJ     (nonspontaneous)

## Equilibrium Constant, K (at 298.15 K)

1.601690177e-053
This process is not favorable at 25°C.

## Reference(s):

Kotz, John C., Treichel, Paul, and Weaver, Gabriela. Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity 6th ed.; Thomson Brooks/Cole: Belmont, CA, 2006; p 167.