介绍

原子数: 7
组: 15 or V A
原子量: 14.0067
期: 2
CAS号码: 7727-37-9

分类

金属
非金属
非金属
碱金属
碱土金属
过渡金属
硫族
卤素
惰性气体
镧系元素

稀土元素
铂族金属
超铀
没有稳定的同位素
固体
液体
加油站
固体 (预料到的)

描述 • 用途/功能

Discovered by Daniel Rutherford in 1772, but Scheele, Cavendish, Priestley,and others about the same time studied “burnt or dephlogisticated air,” as air without oxygen was then called. Nitrogen makes up 78% of the air, byvolume. The atmosphere of Mars, by comparison, is 2.6% nitrogen. The estimated amount of this element in our atmosphere is more than 4000 trilliontons. From this inexhaustible source it can be obtained by liquefaction and fractional distillation. Nitrogen molecules give the orange-red, blue-green,blue-violet, and deep violet shades to the aurora.The element is so inert that Lavoisier named it azote, meaning without life, yet its compounds are soactive as to be most important in foods, poisons, fertilizers, and explosives. Nitrogen can be also easily prepared by heating a water solution ofammonium nitrite. Nitrogen, as a gas, is colorless, odorless, and a generally inert element. As a liquid it is also colorless and odorless, and is similarin appearance to water. Two allotropic forms of solid nitrogen exist, with the transition from the alpha to the beta form taking place at –237°C. When nitrogenis heated, it combines directly with magnesium, lithium, or calcium; when mixed with oxygen and subjected to electric sparks, it forms first nitric oxide(NO) and then the dioxide (NO2); when heated under pressure with a catalyst with hydrogen, ammonia is formed (Haber process). The ammonia thusformed is of the utmost importance as it is used in fertilizers, and it can be oxidized to nitric acid (Ostwald process). The ammonia industryis the largestconsumer of nitrogen. Large amounts of gas are also used by the electronics industry, which uses the gas as a blanketing medium during productionof such components as transistors, diodes, etc. Large quantities of nitrogen are used in annealing stainless steel and other steel mill products. The drugindustry also uses large quantities. Nitrogen is used as a refrigerant both for the immersion freezing of food products and for transportation of foods.Liquid nitrogen is also used in missile work as a purge for components, insulators for space chambers, etc., and by the oil industry to build up greatpressures in wells to force crude oil upward. Sodium and potassium nitrates are formed by the decomposition of organic matter with compounds ofthe metals present. In certain dry areas of the world these saltpeters are found in quantity. Ammonia, nitric acid, the nitrates, the five oxides (N2O, NO,N2O3, NO2, and N2O5), TNT, the cyanides, etc. are but a few of the important compounds. Nitrogen gas prices vary from 2¢ to $2.75 per 100 ft3 (2.83cu. meters), depending on purity, etc. Production of elemental nitrogen in the U.S. is more than 9 million short tons per year. Natural nitrogen containstwo isotopes, 14N and 15N. Ten other isotopes are known. 1

• "very useful as a medium for experiments involving substances that react with oxygen or water," 2
• "Although N2 molecules are realtively unreactive, nature provides mechanisms by which N atoms are incorporated into proteins, nucleic acids, and other nitrogenous compounds. The nitrogen cycle is the complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere (our nitrogen reservoir), lithosphere (earth), and hydrosphere (water)." 3
• "is essential for the growth of living things, and nitrogen is therefore separated from air on a large scale to make fertilizers. Other major uses are in the manufacture of explosives and propellants, and in the provision of an inert atmosphere for chemical processing." 4
• "2nd most produced chemical in the United States in 1995 - 30.6 megatonnes." 5
• "2nd most produced chemical in the United States - 47.32 billion pounds" 6

物理性能

密度:7  1.145 g/L

* - at 1 atm

电子组态

电子组态: [He] 2s2 2p3
块: p
最高占据能级: 2
价电子: 5

量子数:

n = 2
ℓ = 1
m = 1
ms = +½

粘接

电负性 (鲍林规模):8 3.04
Electropositivity (鲍林规模): 0.96
电子亲:9 not stable eV
氧化态: -3

电离能   eV 10  kJ/mol  
1 14.53414    1402.3
2 29.6013    2856.1
电离能   eV 10  kJ/mol  
3 47.44924    4578.2
4 77.4735    7475.1
电离能   eV 10  kJ/mol  
5 97.8902    9445.0
6 552.0718    53266.8
7 667.046    64360.1

热化学

比热: 1.040 J/g°C 11 = 14.567 J/mol°C = 0.249 cal/g°C = 3.482 cal/mol°C
导热系数: 0.02598 (W/m)/K, 27°C 12
融合热: 0.3604 kJ/mol 13 = 25.7 J/g
汽化热: 2.7928 kJ/mol 14 = 199.4 J/g
物质状态 生成焓 (ΔHf°)15 熵 (S°)15 吉布斯自由能 (ΔGf°)15
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(g) 0 0 45.77 191.50168 0 0

同位素

核素  16 半衰期 16 核自旋 16 结合能
10N 10.04165(43) 200(140)E-24 s [2.3(16) MeV] (2-) 37.05 MeV
11N 11.02609(5) 590(210)E-24 s [1.58(+75-52) MeV] 1/2+ 59.09 MeV
12N 12.0186132(11) 11.000(16) ms 1+ 74.61 MeV
13N 13.00573861(29) 9.965(4) min 1/2- 94.79 MeV
14N 14.0030740048(6) 稳定 1+ 104.73 MeV
15N 15.0001088982(7) 稳定 1/2- 115.59 MeV
16N 16.0061017(28) 7.13(2) s 2- 118.08 MeV
17N 17.008450(16) 4.173(4) s 1/2- 124.28 MeV
18N 18.014079(20) 622(9) ms 1- 126.77 MeV
19N 19.017029(18) 271(8) ms (1/2)- 132.04 MeV
20N 20.02337(6) 130(7) ms 134.53 MeV
21N 21.02711(10) 87(6) ms 1/2-# 138.87 MeV
22N 22.03439(21) 13.9(14) ms 140.42 MeV
23N 23.04122(32)# 14.5(24) ms [14.1(+12-15) ms] 1/2-# 141.97 MeV
24N 24.05104(43)# <52 ns 140.73 MeV
25N 25.06066(54)# <260 ns 1/2-# 140.42 MeV
值标记#不是纯粹从实验数据得出,但至少部分来自系统的发展趋势。旋转弱任务参数都包含在括号中。 16

反应

丰富

地球 - 来源化合物: uncombined 25
地球 - 海水: 50 mg/L 26
地球 -  脆皮:  19 mg/kg = 0.0019% 26
地球 -  岩石圈:  0.002% 27
地球 -  大气层:  75.5% 27
地球 -  总:  4.1 ppm 28
水星(行星) -  总:  0.046 ppm 28
金星 -  总:  4.3 ppm 28
球粒陨石 - 总: 90 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 29
人体 - 总: 2.6% 30

化合物

安全信息


材料安全数据表 - ACI Alloys, Inc.

了解更多信息

外部链接:

杂志:
(1) Catling, David C. and Zahnle, Kevin J. The Planetary Air Leak. Scientific American, May 2009, pp 36-43.
(2) Townsend, Alan R. and Howarth, Robert W. Fixing the Global Nitrogen Problem. Scientific American, February 2010, pp 64-71.

来源

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:21.
(2) - Zumdahl, Steven S. Chemistry, 4th ed.; Houghton Mifflin: Boston, 1997; pp 899-900.
(3) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 959.
(4) - Swaddle, T.W. Inorganic Chemistry; Academic Press: San Diego, 1997; p 6.
(5) - Chem. Eng. News, 1995, 73 (26), p 39
(6) - Reisch, Mark S.; Top 50 Chemicals Production Turned Back Up in 1987. Chemical & Engineering News, April 11, 1988, pp 30-33.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(14) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(15) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(16) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 219.
(17) - Atkins, Jones, and Laverman. Chemical Principles 6th ed.; W.H. Freeman and Company: New York, NY, 2013; p F94.
(18) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill: Boston, MA, 2006; p 127.
(19) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 224.
(20) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The molecular Nature of Matter and Change 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill: Boston, MA, 2006; p 128.
(21) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 215.
(22) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 223.
(23) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 182.
(24) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(25) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(26) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 964.
(27) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(28) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.
(29) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 7:17.