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導入

原子番号: 102
グループ: なし
原子量: 259
期間: 7
CAS番号: 10028-14-5

分類

カルコゲン
ハロゲン
希ガス
ランタノイド元素
アクチノイド元素
希土類元素
プラチナグループメタル
超ウラン
いいえ安定同位体ません
固体
液体
ガス
固体 (予測)

説明 • 用途/機能

Nobelium was unambiguously discovered and identified in April 1958 at Berkeley by A. Ghiorso, T. Sikkeland, J. R. Walton, and G. T. Seaborg, who used a new double-recoil technique. A heavy-ion linear accelerator (HILAC) was used to bombard a thin target of curium (95% curium-244 and 4.5% curium-246) with carbon-12 ions to produce Element 102-254 according to the curium-246 (carbon-12, 4 neutrons) reaction. Earlier in 1957 workers of the U.S., Britain, and Sweden announced the discovery of an isotope of Element 102 with a 10-min half-life at 8.5 MeV, as a result of bombarding curium-244 with carbon-13 nuclei. On the basis of this experiment the name nobelium was assigned and accepted by the Commission on Atomic Weights of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The acceptance of the name was premature, for both Russian and American efforts now completely rule out the possibility of any isotope of Element 102 having a half-life of 10 min in the vicinity of 8.5 MeV. Early work in 1957 on the search for this element, in Russia at the Kurchatov Institute, was marred by the assignment of 8.9 ± 0.4 MeV alpha radiation with a half-life of 2 to 40 sec, which was too indefinite to support claim to discovery. Confirmatory experiments at Berkeley in 1966 have shown the existence of Element 102-254 with a 55-s half-life, Element 102-252 with a 2.3-s half-life, and Element 102-257 with a 25-s half-life. Twelve isotopes are now recognized, one of which — Element 102-255 has a half-life of 3.1 min. In view of the discover’s traditional right to name an element, the Berkeley group, in 1967, suggested that the hastily given name nobelium, along with the symbol No, be retained. 1

物理的特性

融点:2*  827 °C = 1100.15 K = 1520.6 °F
沸点:2
昇華点:2 
三重点:2 
臨界点:2 
密度:   g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

電子構成

電子構成:  *[Rn] 7s2 5f14
ブロック: f
最高占有エネルギーレベル: 7
ヴァランス電子: 2

量子数:

n = 5
ℓ = 3
m = 3
ms = -½

ボンディング

イオン化ポテンシャル   eV 3  kJ/mol  
イオン化ポテンシャル   eV 3  kJ/mol  
イオン化ポテンシャル   eV 3  kJ/mol  
1 6.65    641.6

熱化学

比熱: 
熱伝導率: 10 (W/m)/K, 27°C 4
融解熱: 
気化熱: 
物質の状態 生成エンタルピー (ΔHf°)5 エントロピ (S°)5 ギブズ自由エネルギー (ΔGf°)5
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(g) 21.57 90.24888 50.347 210.651848 20.69 86.56696

同位体

核種 質量 6 人生の半分 6 核スピン 6 結合エネルギー
248No 248.08660(32)# <2 μs 0+ 1,847.36 MeV
249No 249.08783(37)# 57(12) μs [54(+15-10) μs] 5/2+# 1,855.44 MeV
250No 250.08751(22)# 5.7(8) μs 0+ 1,863.51 MeV
251No 251.08901(19)# 0.78(2) s 7/2+# 1,871.58 MeV
252No 252.088977(14) 2.27(14) s 0+ 1,879.65 MeV
253No 253.09068(11)# 1.62(15) min (9/2-)# 1,878.41 MeV
254No 254.090955(19) 51(10) s 0+ 1,886.48 MeV
255No 255.093241(11) 3.1(2) min (1/2+) 1,894.55 MeV
256No 256.094283(8) 2.91(5) s 0+ 1,902.62 MeV
257No 257.096877(23) 25(2) s (7/2+) 1,910.69 MeV
258No 258.09821(22)# 1.2(2) ms 0+ 1,918.76 MeV
259No 259.10103(11)# 58(5) min (9/2+)# 1,917.52 MeV
260No 260.10264(22)# 106(8) ms 0+ 1,925.59 MeV
261No 261.10575(32)# 3# h 3/2+# 1,933.66 MeV
262No 262.10730(48)# ~5 ms 0+ 1,941.73 MeV
263No 263.11055(53)# 20# min 1,940.49 MeV
264No 264.11235(69)# 1# min 0+ 1,948.56 MeV
値は、#は、純粋に実験データから派生しますが、少なくとも部分的に体系的な傾向からしていないとマーク。弱い代入引数は括弧で囲まれていてスピン。 6

反応

豊富

安全情報


安全データシート - ACI Alloys, Inc.

詳細については

外部リンク:

ソース

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:21.
(2) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(7) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(8) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(9) - Zumdahl, Steven and Zumdahl, Susan A. Chemistry 9th ed.; Brooks/Cole: Belmont, CA, 2014; p 132.
(10) - Halka, Monica and Nordstrom, Brian. Metals & Metalloids; Infobase Publishing: New York, NY, 2011; pg. 96.
(11) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 135.
(12) - Swaddle, T.W. Inorganic Chemistry; Academic Press: San Diego, 1997; p 360.
(13) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; pp 223-4, 302.
(14) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; pp 135, 138, 194, 210, 219, 222, 224, 227.
(15) - Kotz, John C., Treichel, Paul, and Weaver, Gabriela. Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity 6th ed.; Thomson Brooks/Cole: Belmont, CA, 2006; p 166.
(16) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; pp 219, 302.
(17) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 138.
(18) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; pp 211, 219.
(19) - Halka, Monica and Nordstrom, Brian. Metals & Metalloids; Infobase Publishing: New York, NY, 2011; pg. 49.