MOLYPDEN

Giới thiệu

Số nguyên tử: 42
Nhóm: 6 or VI B
trọng lượng nguyên tử: 95.94
Giai đoạn: 5
Số CAS: 7439-98-7

phân loại

Chalcogen
halogen
Khí hiếm
Lanthanoid
Actinoid
Hiếm tử Trái Đất
Platinum Nhóm kim loại
Transuranium
Không có đồng vị ổn định
Chất rắn
Chất lỏng
Khí
Chất rắn (Dự đoán)

Sự miêu tả • Sử dụng / Chức năng

Before Scheele recognized molybdenite as a distinct ore of a new element in 1778, it was confused with graphite and lead ore. The metal was preparedin an impure form in 1782 by Hjelm. Molybdenum does not occur native, but is obtained principally from molybdenite (MoS2). Wulfenite (PbMoO4)and Powellite (Ca(MoW)O4) are also minor commercial ores. Molybdenum is also recovered as a by-product of copper and tungsten mining operations.The metal is prepared from the powder made by the hydrogen reduction of purified molybdic trioxide or ammonium molybdate. The metal is silverywhite, very hard, but is softer and more ductile than tungsten. It has a high elastic modulus, and only tungsten and tantalum, of the more readily availablemetals, have higher melting points. It is a valuable alloying agent, as it contributes to the hardenability and toughness of quenched and tempered steels.It also improves the strength of steel at high temperatures. It is used in certain nickel-based alloys, such as the “Hastelloys (R)” which are heat-resistantand corrosion-resistant to chemical solutions. Molybdenum oxidizes at elevated temperatures. The metal has found recent application as electrodesfor electrically heated glass furnaces and forehearths. The metal is also used in nuclear energy applications and for missile and aircraft parts.Molybdenum is valuable as a catalyst in the refining of petroleum. It has found application as a filament material in electronic and electrical applications.Molybdenum is an essential trace element in plant nutrition. Some lands are barren for lack of this element in the soil. Molybdenum sulfide is usefulas a lubricant, especially at high temperatures where oils would decompose. Almost all ultra-high strength steels with minimum yield points up to300,000 psi (lb/sq. in.) contain molybdenum in amounts from 0.25 to 8%. Natural molybdenum contains seven isotopes. Twenty three other isotopes andisomers are known, all of which are radioactive. Molybdenum metal costs about $1/g (99.999% purity). Commercial molybdenum metal (99.9%) costsabout $200/kg. 1

• "enzymes, sulfur metabolism…essential for enzymes in humans and other animals" 2
• "Metallic molybdenum has important electrical uses as the supports of filaments in incandescent lamps and radio tubes, in resistance wires and contact points, on account of its high melting point." 3
• "A number of transition metals (Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W) form interstitial carbides of composition MC and, in some cases, M2C. These carbides have extremely high melting points; they are very hard, and they are good electrical conductors." 4
• "Mixed with molybdenum, scandium helps to inhibit the corrosion of zirconium." 5

Tính chất vật lý

Độ nóng chảy:6*  2623 °C = 2896.15 K = 4753.4 °F
Điểm sôi:6* 4639 °C = 4912.15 K = 8382.2 °F
điểm thăng hoa:6 
ba điểm:6 
Điểm cốt lõi:6 
Tỉ trọng:7  10.2 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

electron Cấu hình

electron Cấu hình:  *[Kr] 5s1 4d5
Khối: d
Cao nhất Chiếm Năng lượng Cấp: 5
Valence electron: 

số lượng tử:

n = 4
ℓ = 2
m = 2
ms = +½

bonding

Độ âm điện (thang Pauling):8 2.16
Electropositivity (thang Pauling): 1.84
electron Affinity:9 0.748 eV
Quá trình oxy hóa Hoa: +6,3,5
Chức năng làm việc:10 4.30 eV = 6.8886E-19 J

ion hóa tiềm năng   eV 11  kJ/mol  
1 7.09243    684.3
2 16.16    1559.2
3 27.13    2617.6
4 46.4    4476.9
5 54.49    5257.5
6 68.8276    6640.9
7 125.664    12124.7
8 143.6    13855.3
9 164.12    15835.2
10 186.4    17984.9
ion hóa tiềm năng   eV 11  kJ/mol  
11 209.3    20194.4
12 230.28    22218.6
13 279.1    26929.0
14 302.6    29196.5
15 544    52488.0
16 570    54996.6
17 636    61364.7
18 702    67732.7
19 767    74004.2
20 833    80372.3
ion hóa tiềm năng   eV 11  kJ/mol  
21 902    87029.7
22 968    93397.8
23 1020    98415.0
24 1082    104397.1
25 1263    121860.9
26 1323    127650.1
27 1387    133825.1
28 1449    139807.2
29 1535    148104.9
30 1601    154473.0

nhiệt hóa học

Nhiệt dung riêng: 0.251 J/g°C 12 = 24.081 J/mol°C = 0.060 cal/g°C = 5.755 cal/mol°C
Dẫn nhiệt: 138 (W/m)/K, 27°C 13
Nhiệt Fusion: 32 kJ/mol 14 = 333.5 J/g
Nhiệt bay hơi: 598 kJ/mol 15 = 6233.1 J/g
Nhà nước Matter Entanpi của Formation (ΔHf°)16 entropy (S°)16 Gibbs miễn phí năng lượng (ΔGf°)16
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 6.85 28.6604 0 0
(g) 157.3 658.1432 43.461 181.840824 146.4 612.5376

Đồng vị

Nuclide Khối lượng 17 Half-Life 17 spin hạt nhân 17 Ràng buộc năng lượng
100Mo 99.907477(6) 8.5(5)E+18 a 0+ 860.90 MeV
101Mo 100.910347(6) 14.61(3) min 1/2+ 866.18 MeV
102Mo 101.910297(22) 11.3(2) min 0+ 874.25 MeV
103Mo 102.91321(7) 67.5(15) s (3/2+) 882.32 MeV
104Mo 103.91376(6) 60(2) s 0+ 890.39 MeV
105Mo 104.91697(8) 35.6(16) s (5/2-) 898.46 MeV
106Mo 105.918137(19) 8.73(12) s 0+ 906.53 MeV
107Mo 106.92169(17) 3.5(5) s (7/2-) 905.29 MeV
108Mo 107.92345(21)# 1.09(2) s 0+ 913.36 MeV
109Mo 108.92781(32)# 0.53(6) s (7/2-)# 921.43 MeV
110Mo 109.92973(43)# 0.27(1) s 0+ 929.50 MeV
111Mo 110.93441(43)# 200# ms [>300 ns] 928.26 MeV
112Mo 111.93684(64)# 150# ms [>300 ns] 0+ 936.33 MeV
113Mo 112.94188(64)# 100# ms [>300 ns] 935.09 MeV
114Mo 113.94492(75)# 80# ms [>300 ns] 0+ 943.16 MeV
115Mo 114.95029(86)# 60# ms [>300 ns] 941.92 MeV
83Mo 82.94874(54)# 23(19) ms [6(+30-3) ms] 3/2-# 685.50 MeV
84Mo 83.94009(43)# 3.8(9) ms [3.7(+10-8) s] 0+ 701.02 MeV
85Mo 84.93655(30)# 3.2(2) s (1/2-)# 712.82 MeV
86Mo 85.93070(47) 19.6(11) s 0+ 726.48 MeV
87Mo 86.92733(24) 14.05(23) s 7/2+# 737.34 MeV
88Mo 87.921953(22) 8.0(2) min 0+ 751.00 MeV
89Mo 88.919480(17) 2.11(10) min (9/2+) 760.94 MeV
90Mo 89.913937(7) 5.56(9) h 0+ 774.60 MeV
91Mo 90.911750(12) 15.49(1) min 9/2+ 784.53 MeV
92Mo 91.906811(4) ỔN ĐỊNH 0+ 797.26 MeV
93Mo 92.906813(4) 4.0(8)E+3 a 5/2+ 805.33 MeV
94Mo 93.9050883(21) ỔN ĐỊNH 0+ 814.34 MeV
95Mo 94.9058421(21) ỔN ĐỊNH 5/2+ 822.41 MeV
96Mo 95.9046795(21) ỔN ĐỊNH 0+ 831.41 MeV
97Mo 96.9060215(21) ỔN ĐỊNH 5/2+ 837.62 MeV
98Mo 97.9054082(21) ỔN ĐỊNH 0+ 846.62 MeV
99Mo 98.9077119(21) 2.7489(6) d 1/2+ 852.83 MeV
Các giá trị được đánh dấu # được không hoàn toàn xuất phát từ số liệu thực nghiệm, nhưng ít nhất một phần từ các xu hướng có hệ thống. Quay với lập luận phân yếu được kèm theo trong ngoặc đơn. 17

phong phú

trái đất - nguồn hợp chất: sulfides 18
trái đất - Nước biển: 0.01 mg/L 19
trái đất -  vỏ trái đất:  1.2 mg/kg = 0.00012% 19
trái đất -  Tổng số:  2.35 ppm 20
Mercury (hành tinh) -  Tổng số:  1.81 ppm 20
sao Kim -  Tổng số:  2.47 ppm 20
chondrite - Tổng số: 2.5 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 21
Cơ thể con người - Tổng số: 0.00001% 22

Các hợp chất

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Liện kết ngoại:

tạp chí:
(1) Raloff, Janet. Desperately Seeking Moly. Science News, September 26, 2009, pp 16-20.

nguồn

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:19-4:20.
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(5) - Halka, Monica and Nordstrom, Brian. Transition Metals; Infobase Publishing: New York, NY, 2011; p 10.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
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(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(10) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
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(17) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
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(19) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
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(21) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.
(22) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 7:17.