AGWA-PUWERTE - (7697-37-2)

pagpapakilala

pangalan: nitric acid
* IUPAC
CAS Number: 7697-37-2
Chemical Formula: HNO3
Molar Mass: 63.01284 g
mass Percent: H 1.5995 %; N 22.228 %; O 76.172 % 

pag-uuri

• tulagay

Paggamit / Function

• "Manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Pharmaceutic acid (acidifier)." 1

• "13th most produced chemical in the United States in 1995 - 8.0 megatonnes." 2

• "13th most produced chemical in the United States - 14.20 billion pounds" 3

• "Nitric acid is used to make plastics including nylon and polyurethane. The largest use of nitric acid, however, is in the production of ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3. Ammonium nitrate is used as a nitrogen fertilizer and in the manufactureof explosive mixtures (for example, a fuel oil-ammonium nitrate mixture is used as a mining explosive). Nitric acid is itself used to manufacture explosive compounds. Nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate), C3H5(NO3)3, is prepared from the reaction of nitric acid and glycerol, C3H5(OH)3, which can be made from fats or petroleum." 4

• "A strong corrosive acid prepared from sulfuric acid and a nitrate. It is used in the manufacture of explosives and dyes and as a coagulant in testing urine for albumin." 5

pisikal na Katangian

Temperatura ng pagkatunaw:*
-41.6°C 6 = 231.55 K = -42.88°F
Punto ng pag-kulo:*
83°C 6 = 356.15 K = 181.4°F
densidad (g/cm3):
1.55 at room temperature/pressure 6
* - 1 atm pressure

solubility

ng husay:
natutunaw:  • 6
reacts:  6

bonding

termokimika

ΔHf° (ℓ): -41.40 kcal/mol 7 = -173.22 kJ/mol
ΔHf° (g): -32.28 kcal/mol 7 = -135.06 kJ/mol
S° (ℓ): 37.19 cal/(mol•K) 8 = 155.60 J/(mol•K)
S° (g): 63.64 cal/(mol•K) 8 = 266.27 J/(mol•K)
ΔGf° (ℓ): -19.10 kcal/mol 9 = -79.91 kJ/mol
ΔGf° (g): -17.87 kcal/mol 9 = -74.77 kJ/mol

reaksyon

2 AgNO3 (aq) + 1 H2SO4 (aq) → Ag2SO4 (s) + 2 HNO3 (aq) 10
3 As2S3 (s) + 10 HNO3 (aq) + 4 H2O (ℓ) → 6 H3AsO4 (aq) + 10 NO (g) + 9 S (s) 11
C3H5(OH)3 + 3 HNO3 → C3H5(NO3)3 + 3 H2O  12
C6H6 (ℓ) + 1 HNO3 (ℓ) → C6H5NO2 (ℓ) + H2O (ℓ) 13
3 Cu (s) + 8 HNO3 (aq) → 3 Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 NO (g) + 4 H2O (ℓ) 14
Cu (s) + 4 HNO3 (aq) → Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 NO2 (g) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 15
3 CuS (s) + 8 HNO3 (aq) → 8 NO (g) + 3 CuSO4 (aq) + 4 H2O (ℓ) 16
Fe2O3 (s hematite) + 6 HNO3 (aq) → 2 Fe(NO3)3 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 17
2 HNO3 (aq) + 1 Na2CO3 (aq) → 2 NaNO3 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 18
KNO3 (s) + 1 H2SO4 (ℓ) → KHSO4 (s) + HNO3 (g) 19
2 NaNO3 (s) + 1 H2SO4 (ℓ) → Na2SO4 (s) + 2 HNO3 (ℓ) 20
2 NaNO3 (s) + 1 H2SO4 (ℓ) → Na2SO4 (s) + 2 HNO3 (g) 21
Ni(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 C4H8N2O2 (s) → Ni(C4H7N2O2)2 (s) + 2 HNO3 (aq) 22
NiCO3 (s) + 2 HNO3 (aq) → Ni(NO3)2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + 1 H2O (ℓ) 23
NiS (s) + 4 HNO3 (aq) → Ni(NO3)2 (aq) + S (s) + 2 NO2 (g) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 24
3 NO2 (g) + 1 H2O (ℓ) → 2 HNO3 (aq) + NO (g) 25
Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 1 H2SO4 (aq) → PbSO4 (s) + 2 HNO3 (aq) 26
PbCO3 (s) + 2 HNO3 (aq) → Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g) 26
3 Sn (s) + 16 HNO3 (aq) → 3 Sn(NO3)4 (aq) + 4 NO (g) + 8 H2O (ℓ) 27
14 HNO3 (aq) + 3 Cu2O (s) → 6 Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 NO (g) + 7 H2O (ℓ) 
4 Zn (s) + 10 HNO3 (aq) → 4 Zn(NO3)2 (aq) + NH4NO3 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) 
3 As (s alpha-gray) + 5 HNO3 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) → 3 H3AsO4 (aq) + 5 NO (g) 
3 Cl2 (g) + 5 AgNO3 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) → HClO3 (aq) + 5 HNO3 (aq) + 5 AgCl (s) 
6 HNO3 (aq) + 5 H2C2O4 (aq) + 2 KMnO4 (aq) → 10 CO2 (g) + 2 Mn(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 KNO3 (aq) + 8 H2O (ℓ) 
6 HNO3 (aq) + S (s rhombic) → 6 NO2 (g) + H2SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) 

Para sa karagdagang impormasyon

Pinagmumulan

(1) - The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals, 13th ed.; Budavari, S.; O'Neil, M.J.; Smith, A.; Heckelman, P. E.; Kinneary, J. F., Eds.; Merck & Co.: Whitehouse Station, NJ, 2001; entry 6608.
(2) - Chem. Eng. News, 1995, 73 (26), p 39
(3) - Reisch, Mark S.; Top 50 Chemicals Production Turned Back Up in 1987. Chemical & Engineering News, April 11, 1988, pp 30-33.
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