Enter a mass or volume in one of the boxes below. Upon hitting submit, the stoichiometric equivalents will be calculated for the remaining reactants and products. All gases are assumed to be at STP.
Enthalpy of Reaction
[3ΔHf(Bi (s)) + 3ΔHf(CO (g))] - [1ΔHf(Bi2O3 (s)) + 3ΔHf(C (s graphite))]
[3(0) + 3(-110.54)] - [1(-573.88) + 3(0)] = 242.26 kJ
242.26 kJ (endothermic)
[3ΔSf(Bi (s)) + 3ΔSf(CO (g))] - [1ΔSf(Bi2O3 (s)) + 3ΔSf(C (s graphite))]
[3(56.74) + 3(197.9)] - [1(151.46) + 3(5.69)] = 595.39 J/K
595.39 J/K (increase in entropy)
Free Energy of Reaction (at 298.15 K)
From ΔGf° values:
[3ΔGf(Bi (s)) + 3ΔGf(CO (g))] - [1ΔGf(Bi2O3 (s)) + 3ΔGf(C (s graphite))]
[3(0) + 3(-137.28)] - [1(-493.71) + 3(0)] = 81.8699999999999 kJ
81.87 kJ (nonspontaneous)
From ΔG = ΔH - TΔS:
64.74 kJ (nonspontaneous)
Equilibrium Constant, K (at 298.15 K)
This process is not favorable at 25°C.
Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill: Boston, MA, 2006; p 128.