## Bi2O3 (s) + 3 C (s graphite) → 3 Bi (s) + 3 CO (g)

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## Reaction Type:

Single displacement/Oxidation-reduction

## Stoichiometry

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 Heat Added: kJ Bi2O3          Mass: g C              Mass: g Bi             Mass: g CO             Mass: g or Gas Volume: L

## Enthalpy of Reaction

[3ΔHf(Bi (s)) + 3ΔHf(CO (g))] - [1ΔHf(Bi2O3 (s)) + 3ΔHf(C (s graphite))]
[3(0) + 3(-110.54)] - [1(-573.88) + 3(0)] = 242.26 kJ
242.26 kJ     (endothermic)

## Entropy Change

[3ΔSf(Bi (s)) + 3ΔSf(CO (g))] - [1ΔSf(Bi2O3 (s)) + 3ΔSf(C (s graphite))]
[3(56.74) + 3(197.9)] - [1(151.46) + 3(5.69)] = 595.39 J/K
595.39 J/K     (increase in entropy)

## Free Energy of Reaction (at 298.15 K)

From ΔGf° values:
[3ΔGf(Bi (s)) + 3ΔGf(CO (g))] - [1ΔGf(Bi2O3 (s)) + 3ΔGf(C (s graphite))]
[3(0) + 3(-137.28)] - [1(-493.71) + 3(0)] = 81.8699999999999 kJ
81.87 kJ     (nonspontaneous)

From ΔG = ΔH - TΔS:
64.74 kJ     (nonspontaneous)

## Equilibrium Constant, K (at 298.15 K)

4.5310458429e-015
This process is not favorable at 25°C.

## Reference(s):

Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill: Boston, MA, 2006; p 128.