## PbCO3 (s) + 2 HNO3 (aq) → Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + H2O (ℓ) + 1 CO2 (g)

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## Reaction Type:

Double Displacement/Decomposition of a Carbonate

## Stoichiometry

Enter a mass or volume in one of the boxes below. Upon hitting submit, the stoichiometric equivalents will be calculated for the remaining reactants and products. All gases are assumed to be at STP.

 Heat Added: kJ PbCO3          Mass: g HNO3           Mass: g or Solution Volume: mL of Concentration: mol/L Pb(NO3)2       Mass: g H2O            Mass: g CO2            Mass: g or Gas Volume: L

## Enthalpy of Reaction

[1ΔHf(Pb(NO3)2 (aq)) + 1ΔHf(H2O (ℓ)) + 1ΔHf(CO2 (g))] - [1ΔHf(PbCO3 (s)) + 2ΔHf(HNO3 (aq))]
[1(-416.42) + 1(-285.83) + 1(-393.51)] - [1(-699.15) + 2(-207.36)] = 18.1099999999999 kJ
18.11 kJ     (endothermic)

## Entropy Change

[1ΔSf(Pb(NO3)2 (aq)) + 1ΔSf(H2O (ℓ)) + 1ΔSf(CO2 (g))] - [1ΔSf(PbCO3 (s)) + 2ΔSf(HNO3 (aq))]
[1(303.38) + 1(69.91) + 1(213.68)] - [1(130.96) + 2(146.44)] = 163.13 J/K
163.13 J/K     (increase in entropy)

## Free Energy of Reaction (at 298.15 K)

From ΔGf° values:
[1ΔGf(Pb(NO3)2 (aq)) + 1ΔGf(H2O (ℓ)) + 1ΔGf(CO2 (g))] - [1ΔGf(PbCO3 (s)) + 2ΔGf(HNO3 (aq))]
[1(-247.08) + 1(-237.18) + 1(-394.38)] - [1(-625.51) + 2(-111.34)] = -30.4499999999999 kJ
-30.45 kJ     (spontaneous)

From ΔG = ΔH - TΔS:
-30.53 kJ     (spontaneous)

## Equilibrium Constant, K (at 298.15 K)

216225.06387
This process is favorable at 25°C.

## Reference(s):

Kotz, John C., Treichel, Paul, and Weaver, Gabriela. Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity 6th ed.; Thomson Brooks/Cole: Belmont, CA, 2006; p 160.