## NH3 (g) + 1 CO2 (g) + 1 H2O (ℓ)1 NaCl (aq) → NaHCO3 (s) + NH4Cl (aq)

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## Stoichiometry

Enter a mass or volume in one of the boxes below. Upon hitting submit, the stoichiometric equivalents will be calculated for the remaining reactants and products. All gases are assumed to be at STP.

 NH3            Mass: g or Gas Volume: L CO2            Mass: g or Gas Volume: L H2O            Mass: g NaCl           Mass: g or Solution Volume: mL of Concentration: mol/L NaHCO3         Mass: g NH4Cl          Mass: g Heat Released: kJ

## Enthalpy of Reaction

[1ΔHf(NaHCO3 (s)) + 1ΔHf(NH4Cl (aq))] - [1ΔHf(NH3 (g)) + 1ΔHf(CO2 (g)) + 1ΔHf(H2O (ℓ)) + 1ΔHf(NaCl (aq))]
[1(-947.68) + 1(-299.66)] - [1(-46.11) + 1(-393.51) + 1(-285.83) + 1(-407.25)] = -114.64 kJ
-114.64 kJ     (exothermic)

## Entropy Change

[1ΔSf(NaHCO3 (s)) + 1ΔSf(NH4Cl (aq))] - [1ΔSf(NH3 (g)) + 1ΔSf(CO2 (g)) + 1ΔSf(H2O (ℓ)) + 1ΔSf(NaCl (aq))]
[1(102.09) + 1(169.87)] - [1(192.34) + 1(213.68) + 1(69.91) + 1(115.48)] = -319.45 J/K
-319.45 J/K     (decrease in entropy)

## Free Energy of Reaction (at 298.15 K)

From ΔGf° values:
[1ΔGf(NaHCO3 (s)) + 1ΔGf(NH4Cl (aq))] - [1ΔGf(NH3 (g)) + 1ΔGf(CO2 (g)) + 1ΔGf(H2O (ℓ)) + 1ΔGf(NaCl (aq))]
[1(-851.86) + 1(-210.62)] - [1(-16.48) + 1(-394.38) + 1(-237.18) + 1(-393.15)] = -21.29 kJ
-21.29 kJ     (spontaneous)

From ΔG = ΔH - TΔS:
-19.40 kJ     (spontaneous)

## Equilibrium Constant, K (at 298.15 K)

5370.9878463
This process is favorable at 25°C.

## Reference(s):

Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 181.