Na2CO3 (s) → 2 Na+1 (aq) + CO3-2 (aq)

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Reaction Type:

Dissociation of an ionic compound in water

Enthalpy of Reaction

[2ΔHf(Na+1 (aq)) + 1ΔHf(CO3-2 (aq))] - [1ΔHf(Na2CO3 (s))]
[2(-240.1) + 1(-677.14)] - [1(-1130.94)] = -26.3999999999999 kJ
-26.40 kJ     (exothermic)

Entropy Change

[2ΔSf(Na+1 (aq)) + 1ΔSf(CO3-2 (aq))] - [1ΔSf(Na2CO3 (s))]
[2(59) + 1(-56.9)] - [1(135.98)] = -74.88 J/K
-74.88 J/K     (decrease in entropy)

Free Energy of Reaction (at 298.15 K)

From ΔGf° values:
[2ΔGf(Na+1 (aq)) + 1ΔGf(CO3-2 (aq))] - [1ΔGf(Na2CO3 (s))]
[2(-261.9) + 1(-527.9)] - [1(-1047.67)] = -4.02999999999975 kJ
-4.03 kJ     (spontaneous)

From ΔG = ΔH - TΔS:
-4.07 kJ     (spontaneous)

Equilibrium Constant, K (at 298.15 K)

5.08235198605649
This process is close to or at equilibrium at 25°C.

Enter an initial concentration for the ionic compound. Upon hitting submit, Ksp (5.08235198605649) will be used to calculate the equilibrium concentration for all species.

Na2CO3 Na+1 CO3-2
Initial M   0 0
Change -x +2x +x
Equilibrium