ИТТЕРБИЙ

Введение

атомный номер: 70
группа: Никто
Атомный вес: 173.04
период: 6
Количество CAS: 7440-64-4

классификация

халькогеном
галоген
Благородный газ
лантаноидное
актиноидов
Редкоземельный элемент
Металлов платиновой группы
трансурановый элемент
Нет стабильных изотопов
твердое тело
жидкость
газ
твердое тело (предсказанный)

Описание • Использование / функции

Marignac in 1878 discovered a new component, which he called ytterbia, in the earth then known as erbia. In 1907, Urbain separated ytterbia intotwo components, which he called neoytterbia and lutecia. The elements in these earths are now known as ytterbium and lutetium, respectively. Theseelements are identical with aldebaranium and cassiopeium, discovered independently and at about the same time by von Welsbach. Ytterbium occursalong with other rare earths in a number of rare minerals. It is commercially recovered principally from monazite sand, which contains about 0.03%.Ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques developed in recent years have greatly simplified the separation of the rare earths from one another.The element was first prepared by Klemm and Bonner in 1937 by reducing ytterbium trichloride with potassium. Their metal was mixed, however,with KCl. Daane, Dennison, and Spedding prepared a much purer form in 1953 from which the chemical and physical properties of the element couldbe determined. Ytterbium has a bright silvery luster, is soft, malleable, and quite ductile. While the element is fairly stable, it should be kept in closedcontainers to protect it from air and moisture. Ytterbium is readily attacked and dissolved by dilute and concentrated mineral acids and reacts slowlywith water. Ytterbium has three allotropic forms with transformation points at –13° and 795°C. The beta form is a room-temperature, face-centered,cubic modification, while the high-temperature gamma form is a body-centered cubic form. Another body-centered cubic phase has recently beenfound to be stable at high pressures at room temperatures. The beta form ordinarily has metallic-type conductivity, but becomes a semiconductor whenthe pressure is increased above 16,000 atm. The electrical resistance increases tenfold as the pressure is increased to 39,000 atm and drops to about80% of its standard temperature-pressure resistivity at a pressure of 40,000 atm. Natural ytterbium is a mixture of seven stable isotopes. Twenty sixother unstable isotopes and isomers are known. Ytterbium metal has possible use in improving the grain refinement, strength, and other mechanicalproperties of stainless steel. One isotope is reported to have been used as a radiation source as a substitute for a portable X-ray machine where electricityis unavailable. Few other uses have been found. Ytterbium metal is commercially available with a purity of about 99.9% for about $5/g. Ytterbiumhas a low acute toxic rating, but may present a carcinogenic hazard. 1

Физические свойства

Температура плавления:2*  819 °C = 1092.15 K = 1506.2 °F
Точка кипения:2* 1196 °C = 1469.15 K = 2184.8 °F
возгонки:2 
тройная точка:2 
Критическая точка:2 
плотность:3  6.90 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Электронная конфигурация

Электронная конфигурация:  *[Xe] 6s2 4f14
блок: f
Самый высокий уровень энергии Занято: 6
валентных электронов: 2

Квантовые числа:

n = 4
ℓ = 3
m = 3
ms = -½

Связующие

сродства к электрону:4 -0.020 eV
Окисление Штаты: +3,2

ионизационный потенциал   eV 5  kJ/mol  
1 6.25416    603.4
ионизационный потенциал   eV 5  kJ/mol  
2 12.1761    1174.8
ионизационный потенциал   eV 5  kJ/mol  
3 25.05    2417.0
4 43.56    4202.9

термохимия

Удельная теплоемкость: 0.155 J/g°C 6 = 26.821 J/mol°C = 0.037 cal/g°C = 6.410 cal/mol°C
Теплопроводность: 34.9 (W/m)/K, 27°C 7
Теплота плавления: 7.66 kJ/mol 8 = 44.3 J/g
Теплота парообразования: 128.9 kJ/mol 9 = 744.9 J/g
Состояние материи Энтальпия образования (ΔHf°)10 Энтропия (S°)10 Свободная энергия Гиббса (ΔGf°)10
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 14.31 59.87304 0 0
(g) 36.4 152.2976 41.35 173.0084 28.3 118.4072

Изотопы

нуклид масса 11 Период полураспада 11 Ядерный Спин 11 энергия связи
148Yb 147.96742(64)# 250# ms 0+ 1,177.05 MeV
149Yb 148.96404(54)# 0.7(2) s (1/2+,3/2+) 1,185.12 MeV
150Yb 149.95842(43)# 700# ms [>200 ns] 0+ 1,202.51 MeV
151Yb 150.95540(32) 1.6(5) s (1/2+) 1,210.58 MeV
152Yb 151.95029(22) 3.04(6) s 0+ 1,218.65 MeV
153Yb 152.94948(21)# 4.2(2) s 7/2-# 1,236.03 MeV
154Yb 153.946394(19) 0.409(2) s 0+ 1,244.11 MeV
155Yb 154.945782(18) 1.793(19) s (7/2-) 1,252.18 MeV
156Yb 155.942818(12) 26.1(7) s 0+ 1,260.25 MeV
157Yb 156.942628(11) 38.6(10) s 7/2- 1,268.32 MeV
158Yb 157.939866(9) 1.49(13) min 0+ 1,285.71 MeV
159Yb 158.94005(2) 1.67(9) min 5/2(-) 1,284.46 MeV
160Yb 159.937552(18) 4.8(2) min 0+ 1,301.85 MeV
161Yb 160.937902(17) 4.2(2) min 3/2- 1,309.92 MeV
162Yb 161.935768(17) 18.87(19) min 0+ 1,317.99 MeV
163Yb 162.936334(17) 11.05(25) min 3/2- 1,326.06 MeV
164Yb 163.934489(17) 75.8(17) min 0+ 1,334.13 MeV
165Yb 164.93528(3) 9.9(3) min 5/2- 1,342.21 MeV
166Yb 165.933882(9) 56.7(1) h 0+ 1,350.28 MeV
167Yb 166.934950(5) 17.5(2) min 5/2- 1,358.35 MeV
168Yb 167.933897(5) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 0+ 1,366.42 MeV
169Yb 168.935190(5) 32.026(5) d 7/2+ 1,374.49 MeV
170Yb 169.9347618(26) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 0+ 1,382.56 MeV
171Yb 170.9363258(26) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 1/2- 1,390.63 MeV
172Yb 171.9363815(26) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 0+ 1,398.70 MeV
173Yb 172.9382108(26) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 5/2- 1,406.78 MeV
174Yb 173.9388621(26) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 0+ 1,414.85 MeV
175Yb 174.9412765(26) 4.185(1) d 7/2- 1,413.60 MeV
176Yb 175.9425717(28) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 0+ 1,421.68 MeV
177Yb 176.9452608(28) 1.911(3) h (9/2+) 1,429.75 MeV
178Yb 177.946647(11) 74(3) min 0+ 1,437.82 MeV
179Yb 178.95017(32)# 8.0(4) min (1/2-) 1,436.57 MeV
180Yb 179.95233(43)# 2.4(5) min 0+ 1,444.65 MeV
181Yb 180.95615(43)# 1# min 3/2-# 1,452.72 MeV
Значения, отмеченные # не чисто получены из экспериментальных данных, но, по крайней мере, частично от систематических тенденций. Спины с аргументами слабые присваивания заключены в круглые скобки. 11

изобилие

Земля - Исходные соединения: phosphates 12
Земля - морская вода: 0.00000082 mg/L 13
Земля -  корка:  3.2 mg/kg = 0.00032% 13
Земля -  Всего:  229 ppb 14
Планета Меркурий) -  Всего:  176 ppb 14
Венера -  Всего:  240 ppb 14
Хондриты - Всего: 0.18 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 15

соединений

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Внешние ссылки:

журналы:
(1) Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, pp 136-145.

источники

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:35.
(2) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(4) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(11) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(12) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(13) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(14) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(15) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(16) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.