ВАНАДИЙ

Введение

атомный номер: 23
группа: 5 or V B
Атомный вес: 50.9415
период: 4
Количество CAS: 7440-62-2

классификация

халькогеном
галоген
Благородный газ
лантаноидное
актиноидов
Редкоземельный элемент
Металлов платиновой группы
трансурановый элемент
Нет стабильных изотопов
твердое тело
жидкость
газ
твердое тело (предсказанный)

Описание • Использование / функции

Vanadium was first discovered by del Rio in 1801. Unfortunately, a French chemist incorrectly declared del Rio’s new element was onlyimpure chromium; del Rio thought himself to be mistaken and accepted the French chemist’s statement. The element was rediscovered in 1830 bySefstrom, who named the element in honor of the Scandinavian goddess Vanadis because of its beautiful multicolored compounds. It was isolated innearly pure form by Roscoe, in 1867, who reduced the chloride with hydrogen. Vanadium of 99.3 to 99.8% purity was not produced until 1927.Vanadium is found in about 65 different minerals among which are carnotite, roscoelite, vanadinite, and patronite important sources of the metal.Vanadium is also found in phosphate rock and certain iron ores, and is present in some crude oils in the form of organic complexes. It is also foundin small percentages in meteorites. Commercial production from petroleum ash holds promise as an important source of the element. High-purityductile vanadium can be obtained by reduction of vanadium trichloride with magnesium or with magnesium-sodium mixtures. Much of the vanadiummetal being produced is now made by calcium reduction of V2O5 in a pressure vessel, an adaption of a process developed by McKechnie and Seybolt.Natural vanadium is a mixture of two isotopes, 50V (0.25%) and 51V (99.75%). 50V is slightly radioactive, having a long half-life. Seventeen otherunstable isotopes are recognized. Pure vanadium is a bright white metal, and is soft and ductile. It has good corrosion resistance to alkalis, sulfuricand hydrochloric acid, and salt water, but the metal oxidizes readily above 660°C. The metal has good structural strength and a low fission neutroncross section, making it useful in nuclear applications. Vanadium is used in producing rust resistant, spring, and highspeed tool steels. It is an importantcarbide stabilizer in making steels. About 80% of the vanadium now produced is used as ferrovanadium or as a steel additive. Vanadium foil is usedas a bonding agent in cladding titanium to steel. Vanadium pentoxide is used in ceramics and as a catalyst. It is also used in producing a superconductivemagnet with a field of 175,000 gauss. Vanadium and its compounds are toxic and should be handled with care. Ductile vanadium is commerciallyavailable. Commercial vanadium metal, of about 95% purity, costs about $50kg. Vanadium metal (99.7%) costs about $1.50/g or $700/kg. 1

• "Vanadium gives steel the ability to resist breakage under heavy shocks, and permits steel springs to be bent countless times without losing their elasticity." 2
• "A number of transition metals (Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W) form interstitial carbides of composition MC and, in some cases, M2C. These carbides have extremely high melting points; they are very hard, and they are good electrical conductors." 3

Физические свойства

Температура плавления:4*  1910 °C = 2183.15 K = 3470 °F
Точка кипения:4* 3407 °C = 3680.15 K = 6164.6 °F
возгонки:4 
тройная точка:4 
Критическая точка:4 
плотность:5  6.0 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Электронная конфигурация

Электронная конфигурация: [Ar] 4s2 3d3
блок: d
Самый высокий уровень энергии Занято: 4
валентных электронов: 

Квантовые числа:

n = 3
ℓ = 2
m = 0
ms = +½

Связующие

Электроотрицательность (Полинг шкала):6 1.63
Electropositivity (Полинг шкала): 2.37
сродства к электрону:7 0.525 eV
Окисление Штаты: +5,2,3,4
Рабочая функция:8 4.44 eV = 7.11288E-19 J

ионизационный потенциал   eV 9  kJ/mol  
1 6.7462    650.9
2 14.66    1414.5
3 29.311    2828.1
4 46.709    4506.7
5 65.2817    6298.7
6 128.13    12362.7
7 150.6    14530.7
ионизационный потенциал   eV 9  kJ/mol  
8 173.4    16730.6
9 205.8    19856.7
10 230.5    22239.9
11 255.7    24671.3
12 308.1    29727.1
13 336.277    32445.8
14 896    86450.8
15 976    94169.7
ионизационный потенциал   eV 9  kJ/mol  
16 1060    102274.4
17 1168    112694.8
18 1260    121571.5
19 1355    130737.6
20 1486    143377.2
21 1569.6    151443.3
22 6851.3    661049.8
23 7246.12    699144.1

термохимия

Удельная теплоемкость: 0.489 J/g°C 10 = 24.910 J/mol°C = 0.117 cal/g°C = 5.954 cal/mol°C
Теплопроводность: 30.7 (W/m)/K, 27°C 11
Теплота плавления: 20.9 kJ/mol 12 = 410.3 J/g
Теплота парообразования: 0.452 kJ/mol 13 = 8.9 J/g
Состояние материи Энтальпия образования (ΔHf°)14 Энтропия (S°)14 Свободная энергия Гиббса (ΔGf°)14
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 6.91 28.91144 0 0
(g) 122.90 514.2136 43.544 182.188096 108.32 453.21088

Изотопы

нуклид масса 15 Период полураспада 15 Ядерный Спин 15 энергия связи
40V 40.01109(54)# 2-# 294.61 MeV
41V 40.99978(22)# 7/2-# 313.86 MeV
42V 41.99123(21)# <55 ns 2-# 329.38 MeV
43V 42.98065(25)# 80# ms 7/2-# 347.70 MeV
44V 43.97411(13) 111(7) ms (2+) 361.36 MeV
45V 44.965776(18) 547(6) ms 7/2- 377.82 MeV
46V 45.9602005(11) 422.50(11) ms 0+ 390.55 MeV
47V 46.9549089(9) 32.6(3) min 3/2- 404.21 MeV
48V 47.9522537(27) 15.9735(25) d 4+ 414.14 MeV
49V 48.9485161(12) 329(3) d 7/2- 425.94 MeV
50V 49.9471585(11) 1.4(4)E17 a 6+ 434.94 MeV
51V 50.9439595(11) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 7/2- 446.74 MeV
52V 51.9447755(11) 3.743(5) min 3+ 453.88 MeV
53V 52.944338(3) 1.60(4) min 7/2- 461.95 MeV
54V 53.946440(16) 49.8(5) s 3+ 468.16 MeV
55V 54.94723(11) 6.54(15) s (7/2-)# 475.30 MeV
56V 55.95053(22) 216(4) ms (1+) 480.57 MeV
57V 56.95256(25) 0.35(1) s (3/2-) 486.78 MeV
58V 57.95683(27) 191(8) ms 3+# 491.13 MeV
59V 58.96021(33) 75(7) ms 7/2-# 495.47 MeV
60V 59.96503(51) 122(18) ms 3+# 498.89 MeV
61V 60.96848(43)# 47.0(12) ms 7/2-# 504.16 MeV
62V 61.97378(54)# 33.5(20) ms 3+# 507.58 MeV
63V 62.97755(64)# 17(3) ms (7/2-)# 511.92 MeV
64V 63.98347(75)# 10# ms [>300 ns] 514.41 MeV
65V 64.98792(86)# 10# ms 5/2-# 518.75 MeV
Значения, отмеченные # не чисто получены из экспериментальных данных, но, по крайней мере, частично от систематических тенденций. Спины с аргументами слабые присваивания заключены в круглые скобки. 15

изобилие

Земля - Исходные соединения: oxides 16
Земля - морская вода: 0.0025 mg/L 17
Земля -  корка:  120 mg/kg = 0.012% 17
Земля -  литосфера:  0.014% 18
Земля -  Всего:  82 ppm 19
Планета Меркурий) -  Всего:  63 ppm 19
Венера -  Всего:  86 ppm 19
Хондриты - Всего: 200 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 20

соединений

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Внешние ссылки:

источники

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:34.
(2) - Brownlee, Raymond B., Fuller, Robert W., and Whitsit, Jesse E. Elements of Chemistry; Allyn and Bacon: Boston, Massachusetts, 1959; p 560.
(3) - Jolly, William L. The Chemistry of the Non-Metals; Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1966; p 119.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(6) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(8) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(14) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(15) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(16) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(17) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(18) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 964.
(19) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(20) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.