САМАРИЙ

Введение

атомный номер: 62
группа: Никто
Атомный вес: 150.36
период: 6
Количество CAS: 7440-19-9

классификация

халькогеном
галоген
Благородный газ
лантаноидное
актиноидов
Редкоземельный элемент
Металлов платиновой группы
трансурановый элемент
Нет стабильных изотопов
твердое тело
жидкость
газ
твердое тело (предсказанный)

Описание • Использование / функции

Discovered spectroscopically by its sharp absorption lines in 1879 by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in the mineral samarskite, named in honor of a Russianmine official, Col. Samarski. Samarium is found along with other members of the rare-earth elements in many minerals, including monazite andbastnasite, which are commercial sources. It occurs in monazite to the extent of 2.8%. While misch metal containing about 1% of samarium metal,has long been used, samarium has not been isolated in relatively pure form until recent years. Ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques haverecently simplified separation of the rare earths from one another; more recently, electrochemical deposition, using an electrolytic solution of lithiumcitrate and a mercury electrode, is said to be a simple, fast, and highly specific way to separate the rare earths. Samarium metal can be produced byreducing the oxide with barium or lanthanum. Samarium has a bright silver luster and is reasonably stable in air. Three crystal modifications of themetal exist, with transformations at 734 and 922°C. The metal ignites in air at about 150°C. Thirty two isotopes and isomers of samarium are nowrecognized. Natural samarium is a mixture of seven isotopes, three of which are unstable but have long half-lives. Samarium, along with other rareearths, is used for carbon-arc lighting for the motion picture industry. The sulfide has excellent high-temperature stability and good thermoelectricefficiencies up to 1100°C. SmCo5 has been used in making a new permanent magnet material with the highest resistance to demagnetization of anyknown material. It is said to have an intrinsic coercive force as high as 2200 kA/m. Samarium oxide has been used in optical glass to absorb the infrared.Samarium is used to dope calcium fluoride crystals for use in optical masers or lasers. Compounds of the metal act as sensitizers for phosphors excitedin the infrared; the oxide exhibits catalytic properties in the dehydration and dehydrogenation of ethyl alcohol. It is used in infrared absorbing glassand as a neutron absorber in nuclear reactors. The metal is priced at about $2/g (99.9%). Little is known of the toxicity of samarium; therefore, it shouldbe handled carefully. 1

• "Samarium magnets, which can withstand intense heat, help control Predator drones and Tomahawk cruise missiles." 2

Физические свойства

Температура плавления:3*  1074 °C = 1347.15 K = 1965.2 °F
Точка кипения:3* 1794 °C = 2067.15 K = 3261.2 °F
возгонки:3 
тройная точка:3 
Критическая точка:3 
плотность:4  7.52 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Электронная конфигурация

Электронная конфигурация:  *[Xe] 6s2 4f6
блок: f
Самый высокий уровень энергии Занято: 6
валентных электронов: 2

Квантовые числа:

n = 4
ℓ = 3
m = 2
ms = +½

Связующие

Электроотрицательность (Полинг шкала):5 1.17
Electropositivity (Полинг шкала): 2.83
Рабочая функция:6 2.95 eV = 4.7259E-19 J

ионизационный потенциал   eV 7  kJ/mol  
1 5.6436    544.5
ионизационный потенциал   eV 7  kJ/mol  
2 11.07    1068.1
ионизационный потенциал   eV 7  kJ/mol  
3 23.4    2257.8
4 41.4    3994.5

термохимия

Удельная теплоемкость: 0.197 J/g°C 8 = 29.621 J/mol°C = 0.047 cal/g°C = 7.080 cal/mol°C
Теплопроводность: 13.3 (W/m)/K, 27°C 9
Теплота плавления: 8.63 kJ/mol 10 = 57.4 J/g
Теплота парообразования: 166.4 kJ/mol 11 = 1106.7 J/g
Состояние материи Энтальпия образования (ΔHf°)12 Энтропия (S°)12 Свободная энергия Гиббса (ΔGf°)12
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 16.63 69.57992 0 0
(g) 49.4 206.6896 43.72 182.92448 41.3 172.7992

Изотопы

нуклид масса 13 Период полураспада 13 Ядерный Спин 13 энергия связи
128Sm 127.95808(54)# 0.5# s 0+ 1,031.20 MeV
129Sm 128.95464(54)# 550(100) ms 5/2+# 1,039.27 MeV
130Sm 129.94892(43)# 1# s 0+ 1,056.65 MeV
131Sm 130.94611(32)# 1.2(2) s 5/2+# 1,064.72 MeV
132Sm 131.94069(32)# 4.0(3) s 0+ 1,072.80 MeV
133Sm 132.93867(21)# 2.90(17) s (5/2+) 1,090.18 MeV
134Sm 133.93397(21)# 10(1) s 0+ 1,098.25 MeV
135Sm 134.93252(17) 10.3(5) s (7/2+) 1,106.33 MeV
136Sm 135.928276(13) 47(2) s 0+ 1,123.71 MeV
137Sm 136.92697(5) 45(1) s (9/2-) 1,131.78 MeV
138Sm 137.923244(13) 3.1(2) min 0+ 1,139.85 MeV
139Sm 138.922297(12) 2.57(10) min 1/2+ 1,147.93 MeV
140Sm 139.918995(13) 14.82(12) min 0+ 1,165.31 MeV
141Sm 140.918476(9) 10.2(2) min 1/2+ 1,173.38 MeV
142Sm 141.915198(6) 72.49(5) min 0+ 1,181.45 MeV
143Sm 142.914628(4) 8.75(8) min 3/2+ 1,189.53 MeV
144Sm 143.911999(3) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 0+ 1,197.60 MeV
145Sm 144.913410(3) 340(3) d 7/2- 1,205.67 MeV
146Sm 145.913041(4) 1.03(5)E+8 a 0+ 1,213.74 MeV
147Sm 146.9148979(26) 1.06(2)E+11 a 7/2- 1,221.81 MeV
148Sm 147.9148227(26) 7(3)E+15 a 0+ 1,229.88 MeV
149Sm 148.9171847(26) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 7/2- 1,237.95 MeV
150Sm 149.9172755(26) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 0+ 1,246.02 MeV
151Sm 150.9199324(26) 90(8) a 5/2- 1,254.10 MeV
152Sm 151.9197324(27) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 0+ 1,262.17 MeV
153Sm 152.9220974(27) 46.284(4) h 3/2+ 1,260.92 MeV
154Sm 153.9222093(27) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 0+ 1,269.00 MeV
155Sm 154.9246402(28) 22.3(2) min 3/2- 1,277.07 MeV
156Sm 155.925528(10) 9.4(2) h 0+ 1,285.14 MeV
157Sm 156.92836(5) 8.03(7) min (3/2-) 1,293.21 MeV
158Sm 157.92999(8) 5.30(3) min 0+ 1,301.28 MeV
159Sm 158.93321(11) 11.37(15) s 5/2- 1,300.04 MeV
160Sm 159.93514(21)# 9.6(3) s 0+ 1,308.11 MeV
161Sm 160.93883(32)# 4.8(8) s 7/2+# 1,316.18 MeV
162Sm 161.94122(54)# 2.4(5) s 0+ 1,314.94 MeV
163Sm 162.94536(75)# 1# s 1/2-# 1,323.01 MeV
164Sm 163.94828(86)# 500# ms 0+ 1,331.08 MeV
165Sm 164.95298(97)# 200# ms 5/2-# 1,329.83 MeV
Значения, отмеченные # не чисто получены из экспериментальных данных, но, по крайней мере, частично от систематических тенденций. Спины с аргументами слабые присваивания заключены в круглые скобки. 13

изобилие

Земля - Исходные соединения: phosphates 14
Земля - морская вода: 0.00000045 mg/L 15
Земля -  корка:  7.05 mg/kg = 0.000705% 15
Земля -  Всего:  208 ppb 16
Планета Меркурий) -  Всего:  160 ppb 16
Венера -  Всего:  218 ppb 16
Хондриты - Всего: 0.23 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 17

соединений

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Внешние ссылки:

журналы:
(1) Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, pp 136-145.

источники

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:27.
(2) - Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, p 140.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(5) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(6) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(12) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(13) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(14) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(15) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(16) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(17) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.