СКАНДИЙ

Введение

атомный номер: 21
группа: 3 or III B
Атомный вес: 44.95591
период: 4
Количество CAS: 7440-20-2

классификация

халькогеном
галоген
Благородный газ
лантаноидное
актиноидов
Редкоземельный элемент
Металлов платиновой группы
трансурановый элемент
Нет стабильных изотопов
твердое тело
жидкость
газ
твердое тело (предсказанный)

Описание • Использование / функции

On the basis of the Periodic System, Mendeleev predicted the existence of ekaboron, which would have an atomic weight between 40 of calcium and 48 oftitanium. The element was discovered by Nilson in 1878 in the minerals euxenite and gadolinite, which had not yet been found anywhere except inScandinavia. By processing 10 kg of euxenite and other residues of rare-earth minerals, Nilson was able to prepare about 2 g of scandium oxide ofhigh purity. Cleve later pointed out that Nilson’s scandium was identical with Mendeleev’s ekaboron. Scandium is apparently a much more abundantelement in the sun and certain stars than here on earth. It is about the 23rd most abundant element in the sun, compared to the 50th most abundant onearth. It is widely distributed on earth, occurring in very minute quantities in over 800 mineral species. The blue color of beryl (aquamarine variety)is said to be due to scandium. It occurs as a principal component in the rare mineral thortveitite, found in Scandinavia and Malagasy. It is also foundin the residues remaining after the extraction of tungsten from Zinnwald wolframite, and in wiikite and bazzite. Most scandium is presently beingrecovered from thortveitite or is extracted as a by-product from uranium mill tailings. Metallic scandium was first prepared in 1937 by Fischer, Brunger,and Grieneisen, who electrolyzed a eutectic melt of potassium, lithium, and scandium chlorides at 700 to 800°C. Tungsten wire and a pool of moltenzinc served as the electrodes in a graphite crucible. Pure scandium is now produced by reducing scandium fluoride with calcium metal. The productionof the first pound of 99% pure scandium metal was announced in 1960. Scandium is a silver-white metal which develops a slightly yellowish or pinkishcast upon exposure to air. It is relatively soft, and resembles yttrium and the rare-earth metals more than it resembles aluminum or titanium. It is a verylight metal and has a much higher melting point than aluminum, making it of interest to designers of spacecraft. Scandium is not attacked by a 1:1mixture of conc. HNO3 and 48% HF. Scandium reacts rapidly with many acids. Nineteen isotopes and isomers of scandium are recognized. The metalis expensive, costing about $120/g with a purity of about 99.9%. Scandium oxide costs about $40/g. About 20 kg of scandium (as Sc2O3) are now beingused yearly in the U.S. to produce high-intensity lights, and the radioactive isotope 46Sc is used as a tracing agent in refinery crackers for crude oil,etc. Scandium iodide added to mercury vapor lamps produces a highly efficient light source resembling sunlight, which is important for indoor or nighttimecolor TV. Little is yet known about the toxicity of scandium; therefore, it should be handled with care. 1

• "It is well documented that the East German secret police - the Ministry for State Security, or "Stasi" employed scandium 46 for surveillance of human subjects during the 1970s and 1980s. Scandium 46 decays by emission of a high energy electron that can be easily detected several yards (several meters) from the source, even if there is an intervening barrier such as a wall. Anyone having on his or her person a scandium 46 source could therefore be "seen" without seeing the observer. It is not a naturally occurring isotope, however, so people would not normally carry around 46Sc, and the Stasi went to great efforts to plant sources on their surveillance targets. The radioactive material was acquired from a German nuclear research center, and special liquid sprays were developed that could be applied to cash or to a person's clothing or injected into a ballpoint pen." 2
• "For improving the strength of aluminum materials, there is no better single element to add than scandium. Scandium-aluminum alloys are strong mainly because grain size is reduced. Small grains embedded in a metal lattice inhibit the transfer of a disturbance (such as caused by a forceful blow) through the material. Dislocation of the lattice is impeded at grain boundaries, and vibration is dispersed better when very small grains are distributed throughout the material.

Sc-Al alloys also exhibit excellent thermal stability. This feature makes a high-strength aluminum alloy easier to weld. It also reduces recrystallization. Crystallization weakens any object by restoring a rigid lattice that can have a higher shear tendency, leading to loss of strength. This tends to occur in items like bicycle frames and baseball bats that are cold-worked in their manufacture. Using Sc-Al alloys can alleviate this problem.

Recent studies have shown that the addition of small amounts of zirconium to scandium-aluminum alloys can have a dramatic effect on strength and thermal stability." 3
• "Scandium has relatively few uses. Some scandium, however, is added to aluminum and magnesium alloys to strengthen them. Theoretically, scandium could replace aluminum as a structural material. Scandium weighs the same as aluminum but has a much higher melting point. However, the much higher cost of scandium makes large-scale use of scandium economically prohibitive.

Mixed with molybdenum, scandium helps to inhibit the corrosion of zirconium. Scandium metal has been used as a filter for high-speed neutrons in nuclear reactors." 4

Физические свойства

Температура плавления:5*  1541 °C = 1814.15 K = 2805.8 °F
Точка кипения:5* 2836 °C = 3109.15 K = 5136.8 °F
возгонки:5 
тройная точка:5 
Критическая точка:5 
плотность:6  2.99 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Электронная конфигурация

Электронная конфигурация: [Ar] 4s2 3d1
блок: d
Самый высокий уровень энергии Занято: 4
валентных электронов: 

Квантовые числа:

n = 3
ℓ = 2
m = -2
ms = +½

Связующие

Электроотрицательность (Полинг шкала):7 1.36
Electropositivity (Полинг шкала): 2.64
сродства к электрону:8 0.188 eV
Окисление Штаты: +3
Рабочая функция:9 3.5 eV = 5.607E-19 J

ионизационный потенциал   eV 10  kJ/mol  
1 6.5615    633.1
2 12.79967    1235.0
3 24.75666    2388.7
4 73.4894    7090.6
5 91.65    8842.9
6 110.68    10679.0
7 138    13315.0
ионизационный потенциал   eV 10  kJ/mol  
8 158.1    15254.3
9 180.03    17370.3
10 225.18    21726.6
11 249.798    24101.8
12 687.36    66320.1
13 756.7    73010.4
14 830.8    80160.0
ионизационный потенциал   eV 10  kJ/mol  
15 927.5    89490.1
16 1009    97353.7
17 1094    105554.9
18 1213    117036.7
19 1287.97    124270.2
20 5674.8    547534.8
21 6033.712    582164.6

термохимия

Удельная теплоемкость: 0.568 J/g°C 11 = 25.535 J/mol°C = 0.136 cal/g°C = 6.103 cal/mol°C
Теплопроводность: 15.8 (W/m)/K, 27°C 12
Теплота плавления: 14.1 kJ/mol 13 = 313.6 J/g
Теплота парообразования: 314.2 kJ/mol 14 = 6989.1 J/g
Состояние материи Энтальпия образования (ΔHf°)15 Энтропия (S°)15 Свободная энергия Гиббса (ΔGf°)15
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 8.28 34.64352 0 0
(g) 90.3 377.8152 41.75 174.682 80.32 336.05888

Изотопы

нуклид масса 16 Период полураспада 16 Ядерный Спин 16 энергия связи
36Sc 36.01492(54)# 261.10 MeV
37Sc 37.00305(32)# 7/2-# 279.41 MeV
38Sc 37.99470(32)# <300 ns (2-)# 295.87 MeV
39Sc 38.984790(26) <300 ns (7/2-)# 313.26 MeV
40Sc 39.977967(3) 182.3(7) ms 4- 327.85 MeV
41Sc 40.96925113(24) 596.3(17) ms 7/2- 343.37 MeV
42Sc 41.96551643(29) 681.3(7) ms 0+ 355.17 MeV
43Sc 42.9611507(20) 3.891(12) h 7/2- 366.97 MeV
44Sc 43.9594028(19) 3.97(4) h 2+ 376.90 MeV
45Sc 44.9559119(9) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 7/2- 388.70 MeV
46Sc 45.9551719(9) 83.79(4) d 4+ 396.77 MeV
47Sc 46.9524075(22) 3.3492(6) d 7/2- 407.63 MeV
48Sc 47.952231(6) 43.67(9) h 6+ 415.71 MeV
49Sc 48.950024(4) 57.2(2) min 7/2- 425.64 MeV
50Sc 49.952188(17) 102.5(5) s 5+ 431.85 MeV
51Sc 50.953603(22) 12.4(1) s (7/2)- 438.99 MeV
52Sc 51.95668(21) 8.2(2) s 3(+) 444.26 MeV
53Sc 52.95961(32)# >3 s (7/2-)# 449.54 MeV
54Sc 53.96326(40) 260(30) ms 3+# 453.89 MeV
55Sc 54.96824(79) 0.115(15) s 7/2-# 457.30 MeV
56Sc 55.97287(75)# 35(5) ms (1+) 461.65 MeV
57Sc 56.97779(75)# 13(4) ms 7/2-# 465.06 MeV
58Sc 57.98371(86)# 12(5) ms (3+)# 467.54 MeV
59Sc 58.98922(97)# 10# ms 7/2-# 470.02 MeV
60Sc 59.99571(97)# 3# ms 3+# 472.51 MeV
Значения, отмеченные # не чисто получены из экспериментальных данных, но, по крайней мере, частично от систематических тенденций. Спины с аргументами слабые присваивания заключены в круглые скобки. 16

изобилие

Земля - Исходные соединения: oxides 17
Земля - морская вода: 0.0000006 mg/L 18
Земля -  корка:  22 mg/kg = 0.0022% 18
Земля -  Всего:  9.6 ppm 19
Планета Меркурий) -  Всего:  7.4 ppm 19
Венера -  Всего:  10.1 ppm 19
Хондриты - Всего: 29 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 20

соединений

Информация по технике безопасности


Паспорт безопасности - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Чтобы получить больше информации

Внешние ссылки:

журналы:
(1) Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, pp 136-145.

источники

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:27.
(2) - Halka, Monica and Nordstrom, Brian. Transition Metals; Infobase Publishing: New York, NY, 2011; p 8.
(3) - Halka, Monica and Nordstrom, Brian. Transition Metals; Infobase Publishing: New York, NY, 2011; pp 9-10.
(4) - Halka, Monica and Nordstrom, Brian. Transition Metals; Infobase Publishing: New York, NY, 2011; p 10.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(7) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(9) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(14) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(15) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(16) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(17) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(18) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(19) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(20) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.