АЗОТ

Введение

атомный номер: 7
группа: 15 or V A
Атомный вес: 14.0067
период: 2
Количество CAS: 7727-37-9

классификация

халькогеном
галоген
Благородный газ
лантаноидное
актиноидов
Редкоземельный элемент
Металлов платиновой группы
трансурановый элемент
Нет стабильных изотопов
твердое тело
жидкость
газ
твердое тело (предсказанный)

Описание • Использование / функции

Discovered by Daniel Rutherford in 1772, but Scheele, Cavendish, Priestley,and others about the same time studied “burnt or dephlogisticated air,” as air without oxygen was then called. Nitrogen makes up 78% of the air, byvolume. The atmosphere of Mars, by comparison, is 2.6% nitrogen. The estimated amount of this element in our atmosphere is more than 4000 trilliontons. From this inexhaustible source it can be obtained by liquefaction and fractional distillation. Nitrogen molecules give the orange-red, blue-green,blue-violet, and deep violet shades to the aurora.The element is so inert that Lavoisier named it azote, meaning without life, yet its compounds are soactive as to be most important in foods, poisons, fertilizers, and explosives. Nitrogen can be also easily prepared by heating a water solution ofammonium nitrite. Nitrogen, as a gas, is colorless, odorless, and a generally inert element. As a liquid it is also colorless and odorless, and is similarin appearance to water. Two allotropic forms of solid nitrogen exist, with the transition from the alpha to the beta form taking place at –237°C. When nitrogenis heated, it combines directly with magnesium, lithium, or calcium; when mixed with oxygen and subjected to electric sparks, it forms first nitric oxide(NO) and then the dioxide (NO2); when heated under pressure with a catalyst with hydrogen, ammonia is formed (Haber process). The ammonia thusformed is of the utmost importance as it is used in fertilizers, and it can be oxidized to nitric acid (Ostwald process). The ammonia industryis the largestconsumer of nitrogen. Large amounts of gas are also used by the electronics industry, which uses the gas as a blanketing medium during productionof such components as transistors, diodes, etc. Large quantities of nitrogen are used in annealing stainless steel and other steel mill products. The drugindustry also uses large quantities. Nitrogen is used as a refrigerant both for the immersion freezing of food products and for transportation of foods.Liquid nitrogen is also used in missile work as a purge for components, insulators for space chambers, etc., and by the oil industry to build up greatpressures in wells to force crude oil upward. Sodium and potassium nitrates are formed by the decomposition of organic matter with compounds ofthe metals present. In certain dry areas of the world these saltpeters are found in quantity. Ammonia, nitric acid, the nitrates, the five oxides (N2O, NO,N2O3, NO2, and N2O5), TNT, the cyanides, etc. are but a few of the important compounds. Nitrogen gas prices vary from 2¢ to $2.75 per 100 ft3 (2.83cu. meters), depending on purity, etc. Production of elemental nitrogen in the U.S. is more than 9 million short tons per year. Natural nitrogen containstwo isotopes, 14N and 15N. Ten other isotopes are known. 1

• "very useful as a medium for experiments involving substances that react with oxygen or water," 2
• "Although N2 molecules are realtively unreactive, nature provides mechanisms by which N atoms are incorporated into proteins, nucleic acids, and other nitrogenous compounds. The nitrogen cycle is the complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere (our nitrogen reservoir), lithosphere (earth), and hydrosphere (water)." 3
• "is essential for the growth of living things, and nitrogen is therefore separated from air on a large scale to make fertilizers. Other major uses are in the manufacture of explosives and propellants, and in the provision of an inert atmosphere for chemical processing." 4
• "2nd most produced chemical in the United States in 1995 - 30.6 megatonnes." 5
• "2nd most produced chemical in the United States - 47.32 billion pounds" 6

Физические свойства

плотность:7  1.145 g/L

* - at 1 atm

Электронная конфигурация

Электронная конфигурация: [He] 2s2 2p3
блок: p
Самый высокий уровень энергии Занято: 2
валентных электронов: 5

Квантовые числа:

n = 2
ℓ = 1
m = 1
ms = +½

Связующие

Электроотрицательность (Полинг шкала):8 3.04
Electropositivity (Полинг шкала): 0.96
сродства к электрону:9 not stable eV
Окисление Штаты: -3

ионизационный потенциал   eV 10  kJ/mol  
1 14.53414    1402.3
2 29.6013    2856.1
ионизационный потенциал   eV 10  kJ/mol  
3 47.44924    4578.2
4 77.4735    7475.1
ионизационный потенциал   eV 10  kJ/mol  
5 97.8902    9445.0
6 552.0718    53266.8
7 667.046    64360.1

термохимия

Удельная теплоемкость: 1.040 J/g°C 11 = 14.567 J/mol°C = 0.249 cal/g°C = 3.482 cal/mol°C
Теплопроводность: 0.02598 (W/m)/K, 27°C 12
Теплота плавления: 0.3604 kJ/mol 13 = 25.7 J/g
Теплота парообразования: 2.7928 kJ/mol 14 = 199.4 J/g
Состояние материи Энтальпия образования (ΔHf°)15 Энтропия (S°)15 Свободная энергия Гиббса (ΔGf°)15
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(g) 0 0 45.77 191.50168 0 0

Изотопы

нуклид масса 16 Период полураспада 16 Ядерный Спин 16 энергия связи
10N 10.04165(43) 200(140)E-24 s [2.3(16) MeV] (2-) 37.05 MeV
11N 11.02609(5) 590(210)E-24 s [1.58(+75-52) MeV] 1/2+ 59.09 MeV
12N 12.0186132(11) 11.000(16) ms 1+ 74.61 MeV
13N 13.00573861(29) 9.965(4) min 1/2- 94.79 MeV
14N 14.0030740048(6) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 1+ 104.73 MeV
15N 15.0001088982(7) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 1/2- 115.59 MeV
16N 16.0061017(28) 7.13(2) s 2- 118.08 MeV
17N 17.008450(16) 4.173(4) s 1/2- 124.28 MeV
18N 18.014079(20) 622(9) ms 1- 126.77 MeV
19N 19.017029(18) 271(8) ms (1/2)- 132.04 MeV
20N 20.02337(6) 130(7) ms 134.53 MeV
21N 21.02711(10) 87(6) ms 1/2-# 138.87 MeV
22N 22.03439(21) 13.9(14) ms 140.42 MeV
23N 23.04122(32)# 14.5(24) ms [14.1(+12-15) ms] 1/2-# 141.97 MeV
24N 24.05104(43)# <52 ns 140.73 MeV
25N 25.06066(54)# <260 ns 1/2-# 140.42 MeV
Значения, отмеченные # не чисто получены из экспериментальных данных, но, по крайней мере, частично от систематических тенденций. Спины с аргументами слабые присваивания заключены в круглые скобки. 16

Реакции

изобилие

Земля - Исходные соединения: uncombined 25
Земля - морская вода: 50 mg/L 26
Земля -  корка:  19 mg/kg = 0.0019% 26
Земля -  литосфера:  0.002% 27
Земля -  атмосфера:  75.5% 27
Земля -  Всего:  4.1 ppm 28
Планета Меркурий) -  Всего:  0.046 ppm 28
Венера -  Всего:  4.3 ppm 28
Хондриты - Всего: 90 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 29
Тело человека - Всего: 2.6% 30

соединений

Информация по технике безопасности


Паспорт безопасности - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Чтобы получить больше информации

Внешние ссылки:

журналы:
(1) Catling, David C. and Zahnle, Kevin J. The Planetary Air Leak. Scientific American, May 2009, pp 36-43.
(2) Townsend, Alan R. and Howarth, Robert W. Fixing the Global Nitrogen Problem. Scientific American, February 2010, pp 64-71.

источники

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:21.
(2) - Zumdahl, Steven S. Chemistry, 4th ed.; Houghton Mifflin: Boston, 1997; pp 899-900.
(3) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 959.
(4) - Swaddle, T.W. Inorganic Chemistry; Academic Press: San Diego, 1997; p 6.
(5) - Chem. Eng. News, 1995, 73 (26), p 39
(6) - Reisch, Mark S.; Top 50 Chemicals Production Turned Back Up in 1987. Chemical & Engineering News, April 11, 1988, pp 30-33.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(14) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(15) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(16) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 219.
(17) - Atkins, Jones, and Laverman. Chemical Principles 6th ed.; W.H. Freeman and Company: New York, NY, 2013; p F94.
(18) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill: Boston, MA, 2006; p 127.
(19) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 224.
(20) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The molecular Nature of Matter and Change 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill: Boston, MA, 2006; p 128.
(21) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 215.
(22) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 223.
(23) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 182.
(24) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(25) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(26) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 964.
(27) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(28) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.
(29) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 7:17.