КРИПТОН

Введение

атомный номер: 36
группа: 18 or VIII A
Атомный вес: 83.798
период: 4
Количество CAS: 7439-90-9

классификация

халькогеном
галоген
Благородный газ
лантаноидное
актиноидов
Редкоземельный элемент
Металлов платиновой группы
трансурановый элемент
Нет стабильных изотопов
твердое тело
жидкость
газ
твердое тело (предсказанный)

Описание • Использование / функции

Discovered in 1898 by Ramsay and Travers in the residue left after liquid air had nearly boiled away. Krypton is present in the air to the extent of about 1 ppm. The atmosphere of Mars has been found to contain 0.3 ppm of krypton. It is one of the “noble” gases. It is characterized by its brilliant green and orange spectral lines. Naturally occurring krypton contains six stable isotopes. Twenty four other unstable isotopes and isomers are now recognized. The spectral lines of krypton are easily produced and some are very sharp. In 1960 it was internationally agreed that the fundamental unit of length, the meter, should be defined in terms of the orange-red spectral line of 86Kr. This replaced the standard meter of Paris, which was defined in terms of a bar made of a platinum-iridium alloy. In October 1983 the meter, which originally was defined as being one ten millionth of a quadrant of the earth’s polar circumference, was again redefined by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures as being the length of path traveled by light in a vacuum during a time interval of 1/299,792,458 of a second. Solid krypton is a white crystalline substance with a face-centered cubic structure which is common to all the “rare gases”. While krypton is generally thought of as a rare gas that normally does not combine with other elements to form compounds, it now appears that the existence of some krypton compounds is established. Krypton difluoride has been prepared in gram quantities and can be made by several methods. A higher fluoride of krypton and a salt of an oxyacid of krypton also have been reported. Molecule-ions of ArKr+ and KrH+ have been identified and investigated, and evidence is provided for the formation of KrXe or KrXe+. Krypton clathrates have been prepared with hydroquinone and phenol. 85Kr has found recent application in chemical analysis. By imbedding the isotope in various solids, kryptonates are formed. The activity of these kryptonates is sensitive to chemical reactions at the surface. Estimates of the concentration of reactants are therefore made possible. Krypton is used in certain photographic flash lamps for high-speed photography. Uses thus far have been limited because of its high cost. Krypton gas presently costs about $690/100 L. 1

• "Krypton and xenon are likewise used, but to a much smaller extent, in the filling of fluorescent lamps and other special lamps." 2
• "Airport runway and approach lights" 3

Физические свойства

Температура плавления:4
Точка кипения:4* -153.22 °C = 119.93 K = -243.796 °F
возгонки:4 
тройная точка:4 -157.38 °C = 115.77 K = -251.284 °F at 73.2 kPa
Критическая точка:4 -63.74 °C = 209.41 K = -82.732 °F 4
плотность:5  3.425 g/L

* - at 1 atm

Электронная конфигурация

Электронная конфигурация: [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p6
блок: p
Самый высокий уровень энергии Занято: 4
валентных электронов: 8

Квантовые числа:

n = 4
ℓ = 1
m = 1
ms = -½

Связующие

сродства к электрону:6 not stable eV
Окисление Штаты: 0

ионизационный потенциал   eV 7  kJ/mol  
1 13.99961    1350.8
2 24.35985    2350.4
3 36.95    3565.1
4 52.5    5065.5
5 64.7    6242.6
6 78.5    7574.1
7 111    10709.9
8 125.802    12138.0
9 230.85    22273.6
10 268.2    25877.4
ионизационный потенциал   eV 7  kJ/mol  
11 308    29717.5
12 350    33769.9
13 391    37725.8
14 447    43128.9
15 492    47470.8
16 541    52198.6
17 592    57119.3
18 641    61847.1
19 786    75837.5
20 833    80372.3
ионизационный потенциал   eV 7  kJ/mol  
21 884    85293.0
22 937    90406.7
23 998    96292.3
24 1051    101406.1
25 1151    111054.6
26 1205.3    116293.7
27 2928    282509.0
28 3070    296209.9
29 3227    311358.1
30 3381    326216.8

термохимия

Удельная теплоемкость: 0.248 J/g°C 8 = 20.782 J/mol°C = 0.059 cal/g°C = 4.967 cal/mol°C
Теплопроводность: 0.00949 (W/m)/K, 27°C 9
Теплота плавления: 1.638 kJ/mol 10 = 19.5 J/g
Теплота парообразования: 9.029 kJ/mol 11 = 107.7 J/g
Состояние материи Энтальпия образования (ΔHf°)12 Энтропия (S°)12 Свободная энергия Гиббса (ΔGf°)12
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(g) 0 0 39.191 163.975144 0 0

Изотопы

нуклид масса 13 Период полураспада 13 Ядерный Спин 13 энергия связи
100Kr 99.96114(54)# 10# ms [>300 ns] 0+ 815.29 MeV
69Kr 68.96518(43)# 32(10) ms 5/2-# 561.36 MeV
70Kr 69.95526(41)# 52(17) ms 0+ 578.74 MeV
71Kr 70.94963(70) 100(3) ms (5/2)- 592.40 MeV
72Kr 71.942092(9) 17.16(18) s 0+ 607.00 MeV
73Kr 72.939289(7) 28.6(6) s 3/2- 617.86 MeV
74Kr 73.9330844(22) 11.50(11) min 0+ 631.52 MeV
75Kr 74.930946(9) 4.29(17) min 5/2+ 642.39 MeV
76Kr 75.925910(4) 14.8(1) h 0+ 655.12 MeV
77Kr 76.9246700(21) 74.4(6) min 5/2+ 664.12 MeV
78Kr 77.9203648(12) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 0+ 675.92 MeV
79Kr 78.920082(4) 35.04(10) h 1/2- 683.99 MeV
80Kr 79.9163790(16) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 0+ 695.79 MeV
81Kr 80.9165920(21) 2.29(11)E+5 a 7/2+ 703.86 MeV
82Kr 81.9134836(19) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 0+ 714.72 MeV
83Kr 82.914136(3) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 9/2+ 721.86 MeV
84Kr 83.911507(3) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 0+ 732.73 MeV
85Kr 84.9125273(21) 10.776(3) a 9/2+ 739.87 MeV
86Kr 85.91061073(11) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 0+ 749.80 MeV
87Kr 86.91335486(29) 76.3(5) min 5/2+ 755.08 MeV
88Kr 87.914447(14) 2.84(3) h 0+ 762.22 MeV
89Kr 88.91763(6) 3.15(4) min 3/2(+#) 767.50 MeV
90Kr 89.919517(20) 32.32(9) s 0+ 773.70 MeV
91Kr 90.92345(6) 8.57(4) s 5/2(+) 778.05 MeV
92Kr 91.926156(13) 1.840(8) s 0+ 783.33 MeV
93Kr 92.93127(11) 1.286(10) s 1/2+ 786.74 MeV
94Kr 93.93436(32)# 210(4) ms 0+ 792.02 MeV
95Kr 94.93984(43)# 114(3) ms 1/2(+) 795.43 MeV
96Kr 95.94307(54)# 80(7) ms 0+ 799.78 MeV
97Kr 96.94856(54)# 63(4) ms 3/2+# 803.19 MeV
98Kr 97.95191(64)# 46(8) ms 0+ 808.47 MeV
99Kr 98.95760(64)# 40(11) ms (3/2+)# 810.95 MeV
Значения, отмеченные # не чисто получены из экспериментальных данных, но, по крайней мере, частично от систематических тенденций. Спины с аргументами слабые присваивания заключены в круглые скобки. 13

изобилие

Земля - Исходные соединения: uncombined 14
Земля - морская вода: 0.00021 mg/L 15
Земля -  корка:  0.0001 mg/kg = 0.00000001% 15
Земля -  Всего:  0.0236E-8 cm^3/g 16
Планета Меркурий) -  Всего:  16
Венера -  Всего:  2.30E-8 cm^3/g 16

соединений

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Внешние ссылки:

источники

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:17.
(2) - Jolly, William L. The Chemistry of the Non-Metals; Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1966; p 23.
(3) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 944.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(12) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(13) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(14) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(15) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(16) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)