ГАДОЛИНИЙ

Введение

атомный номер: 64
группа: Никто
Атомный вес: 157.25
период: 6
Количество CAS: 7440-54-2

классификация

халькогеном
галоген
Благородный газ
лантаноидное
актиноидов
Редкоземельный элемент
Металлов платиновой группы
трансурановый элемент
Нет стабильных изотопов
твердое тело
жидкость
газ
твердое тело (предсказанный)

Описание • Использование / функции

Gadolinia, the oxide of gadolinium, was separated by Marignac in 1880 and Lecoq de Boisbaudran independently isolatedthe element from Mosander’s “yttria” in 1886. The element was named for the mineral gadolinite from which this rare earth was originally obtained.Gadolinium is found in several other minerals, including monazite and bastnasite, which are of commercial importance. The element has been isolatedonly in recent years. With the development of ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques, the availability and price of gadolinium and the otherrare-earth metals have greatly improved. Thirty isotopes and isomers of gadolinium are now recognized; seven are stable and occur naturally. The metalcan be prepared by the reduction of the anhydrous fluoride with metallic calcium. As with other related rare-earth metals, it is silvery white, has ametallic luster, and is malleable and ductile. At room temperature, gadolinium crystallizes in the hexagonal, close-packed alpha form. Upon heating to1235°C, alpha gadolinium transforms into the beta form, which has a body-centered cubic structure. The metal is relatively stable in dry air, but in moist airit tarnishes with the formation of a loosely adhering oxide film which spalls off and exposes more surface to oxidation. The metal reacts slowly withwater and is soluble in dilute acid. Gadolinium has the highest thermal neutron capture cross-section of any known element (49,000 barns). Naturalgadolinium is a mixture of seven isotopes. Two of these, 155Gd and 157Gd, have excellent capture characteristics, but they are present naturally in lowconcentrations. As a result, gadolinium has a very fast burnout rate and has limited use as a nuclear control rod material. It has been used in makinggadolinium yttrium garnets, which have microwave applications. Compounds of gadolinium are used in making phosphors for color TV tubes. Themetal has unusual superconductive properties. As little as 1% gadolinium has been found to improve the workability and resistance of iron, chromium,and related alloys to high temperatures and oxidation. Gadolinium ethyl sulfate has extremely low noise characteristics and may find use in duplicatingthe performance of amplifiers, such as the maser. The metal is ferromagnetic. Gadolinium is unique for its high magnetic moment and for its specialCurie temperature (above which ferromagnetism vanishes) lying just at room temperature. This suggests uses as a magnetic component that senseshot and cold. The price of the metal is $2/g (99.9% purity). 1

• "Night-vision goggles require...gadolinium" 2
• "Gadolinium also serves as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, helping surgeons distinguish diseased from healthy tissue." 3

Физические свойства

Температура плавления:4*  1313 °C = 1586.15 K = 2395.4 °F
Точка кипения:4* 3273 °C = 3546.15 K = 5923.4 °F
возгонки:4 
тройная точка:4 
Критическая точка:4 
плотность:5  7.90 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Электронная конфигурация

Электронная конфигурация:  *[Xe] 6s2 4f8
блок: f
Самый высокий уровень энергии Занято: 6
валентных электронов: 2

Квантовые числа:

n = 4
ℓ = 3
m = -3
ms = -½

Связующие

Электроотрицательность (Полинг шкала):6 1.20
Electropositivity (Полинг шкала): 2.8
Рабочая функция:7 5.1 eV = 8.1702E-19 J

ионизационный потенциал   eV 8  kJ/mol  
1 6.1501    593.4
ионизационный потенциал   eV 8  kJ/mol  
2 12.09    1166.5
ионизационный потенциал   eV 8  kJ/mol  
3 20.63    1990.5
4 44    4245.4

термохимия

Удельная теплоемкость: 0.236 J/g°C 9 = 37.111 J/mol°C = 0.056 cal/g°C = 8.870 cal/mol°C
Теплопроводность: 10.6 (W/m)/K, 27°C 10
Теплота плавления: 10.05 kJ/mol 11 = 63.9 J/g
Теплота парообразования: 359.4 kJ/mol 12 = 2285.5 J/g
Состояние материи Энтальпия образования (ΔHf°)13 Энтропия (S°)13 Свободная энергия Гиббса (ΔGf°)13
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 16.27 68.07368 0 0
(g) 95.0 397.48 46.42 194.22128 86.0 359.824

Изотопы

нуклид масса 14 Период полураспада 14 Ядерный Спин 14 энергия связи
134Gd 133.95537(43)# 0.4# s 0+ 1,078.06 MeV
135Gd 134.95257(54)# 1.1(2) s 3/2- 1,086.13 MeV
136Gd 135.94734(43)# 1# s [>200 ns] 1,103.52 MeV
137Gd 136.94502(43)# 2.2(2) s 7/2+# 1,111.59 MeV
138Gd 137.94012(21)# 4.7(9) s 0+ 1,119.66 MeV
139Gd 138.93824(21)# 5.7(3) s 9/2-# 1,137.05 MeV
140Gd 139.93367(3) 15.8(4) s 0+ 1,145.12 MeV
141Gd 140.932126(21) 14(4) s (1/2+) 1,153.19 MeV
142Gd 141.92812(3) 70.2(6) s 0+ 1,170.57 MeV
143Gd 142.92675(22) 39(2) s (1/2)+ 1,178.65 MeV
144Gd 143.92296(3) 4.47(6) min 0+ 1,186.72 MeV
145Gd 144.921709(20) 23.0(4) min 1/2+ 1,194.79 MeV
146Gd 145.918311(5) 48.27(10) d 0+ 1,212.17 MeV
147Gd 146.919094(3) 38.06(12) h 7/2- 1,220.25 MeV
148Gd 147.918115(3) 74.6(30) a 0+ 1,228.32 MeV
149Gd 148.919341(4) 9.28(10) d 7/2- 1,236.39 MeV
150Gd 149.918659(7) 1.79(8)E+6 a 0+ 1,244.46 MeV
151Gd 150.920348(4) 124(1) d 7/2- 1,243.22 MeV
152Gd 151.9197910(27) 1.08(8)E+14 a 0+ 1,260.60 MeV
153Gd 152.9217495(27) 240.4(10) d 3/2- 1,259.36 MeV
154Gd 153.9208656(27) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 0+ 1,267.43 MeV
155Gd 154.9226220(27) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 3/2- 1,275.50 MeV
156Gd 155.9221227(27) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 0+ 1,283.57 MeV
157Gd 156.9239601(27) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 3/2- 1,291.64 MeV
158Gd 157.9241039(27) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 0+ 1,299.72 MeV
159Gd 158.9263887(27) 18.479(4) h 3/2- 1,307.79 MeV
160Gd 159.9270541(27) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 0+ 1,315.86 MeV
161Gd 160.9296692(29) 3.646(3) min 5/2- 1,323.93 MeV
162Gd 161.930985(5) 8.4(2) min 0+ 1,322.69 MeV
163Gd 162.93399(32)# 68(3) s 7/2+# 1,330.76 MeV
164Gd 163.93586(43)# 45(3) s 0+ 1,338.83 MeV
165Gd 164.93938(54)# 10.3(16) s 1/2-# 1,346.90 MeV
166Gd 165.94160(64)# 4.8(10) s 0+ 1,345.66 MeV
167Gd 166.94557(64)# 3# s 5/2-# 1,353.73 MeV
168Gd 167.94836(75)# 300# ms 0+ 1,361.80 MeV
169Gd 168.95287(86)# 1# s 7/2-# 1,360.56 MeV
Значения, отмеченные # не чисто получены из экспериментальных данных, но, по крайней мере, частично от систематических тенденций. Спины с аргументами слабые присваивания заключены в круглые скобки. 14

изобилие

Земля - Исходные соединения: phosphates 15
Земля - морская вода: 0.0000007 mg/L 16
Земля -  корка:  6.2 mg/kg = 0.00062% 16
Земля -  Всего:  286 ppb 17
Планета Меркурий) -  Всего:  220 ppb 17
Венера -  Всего:  300 ppb 17
Хондриты - Всего: 0.34 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 18

соединений

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Внешние ссылки:

журналы:
(1) Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, pp 136-145.

источники

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:12-4:13.
(2) - Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, p 140.
(3) - Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, p 140.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(6) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(7) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(13) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(14) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(15) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(16) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(17) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(18) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.