МЕДЬ

Введение

атомный номер: 29
группа: 11 or I B
Атомный вес: 63.546
период: 4
Количество CAS: 7440-50-8

классификация

халькогеном
галоген
Благородный газ
лантаноидное
актиноидов
Редкоземельный элемент
Металлов платиновой группы
трансурановый элемент
Нет стабильных изотопов
твердое тело
жидкость
газ
твердое тело (предсказанный)

Описание • Использование / функции

The discovery of copper dates from prehistoric times. It is said to have been mined for more than 5000 years. It is one of man’s most importantmetals. Copper is reddish colored, takes on a bright metallic luster, and is malleable, ductile, and a good conductor of heat and electricity (second onlyto silver in electrical conductivity). The electrical industry is one of the greatest users of copper. Copper occasionally occurs native, and is found inmany minerals such as cuprite, malachite, azurite, chalcopyrite, and bornite. Large copper ore deposits are found in the U.S., Chile, Zambia, Zaire,Peru, and Canada. The most important copper ores are the sulfides, oxides, and carbonates. From these, copper is obtained by smelting, leaching, andby electrolysis. Its alloys, brass and bronze, long used, are still very important; all American coins are now copper alloys; monel and gun metals alsocontain copper. The most important compounds are the oxide and the sulfate, blue vitriol; the latter has wide use as an agricultural poison and as analgicide in water purification. Copper compounds such as Fehling’s solution are widely used in analytical chemistry in tests for sugar. High-puritycopper (99.999 + %) is available commercially. Natural copper contains two isotopes. Twenty five other radioactive isotopes and isomers are known. 1

• "Copper is so widely used, especially in its alloys such as bronze (Cu and Sn) and brass (Cu and Zn), that it is becoming very scarce...The increased use of fiber optics in place of copper in communications cables may help to lessen the demand for this metal. The use of superconducting materials in electricity transmission lines could eventually provide enormous savings." 2
• "hemoglobin, bone, nerves, vascular system...needed for the absorption and mobilization of iron, so a deficiency of copper causes a type of anemia that is difficult to distinguish from iron deficiency anemia. Copper is also needed for the cardiovascular system, bone, brain, and nervous system. Premature and malnourished infants are particularly susceptible to developing copper deficiency, in part because milk is a poor source of copper." 3
• "One of the many important uses of copper is to make wire for electric transmission. For this it must be practically pure, as even very small amounts of impurity lower the conductivity. If the conductivity of pure copper is considered as 100, copper containing 0.8 per cent of arsenic has a conductivity of only 30, and copper containing 0.5 per cent of silicon has a conductivity of 28. The electrolytic refining of copper furnishes metal pure enough for most electrical work. Sheet copper is used extensively for roofing, linings, and ornamental work. The copper sheeting in the Statue of Liberty is estimated to weigh about 20,000 pounds. Copper is also an important constituent of the bronzes and brasses." 4

Физические свойства

Температура плавления:5*  1084.62 °C = 1357.77 K = 1984.316 °F
Точка кипения:5* 2562 °C = 2835.15 K = 4643.6 °F
возгонки:5 
тройная точка:5 
Критическая точка:5 
плотность:6  8.96 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Электронная конфигурация

Электронная конфигурация:  *[Ar] 4s1 3d10
блок: d
Самый высокий уровень энергии Занято: 4
валентных электронов: 

Квантовые числа:

n = 3
ℓ = 2
m = 2
ms = -½

Связующие

Электроотрицательность (Полинг шкала):7 1.90
Electropositivity (Полинг шкала): 2.1
сродства к электрону:8 1.235 eV
Окисление Штаты: +2,1
Рабочая функция:9 4.70 eV = 7.5294E-19 J

ионизационный потенциал   eV 10  kJ/mol  
1 7.72638    745.5
2 20.2924    1957.9
3 36.841    3554.6
4 57.38    5536.3
5 79.8    7699.5
6 103    9938.0
7 139    13411.5
8 166    16016.6
9 199    19200.6
ионизационный потенциал   eV 10  kJ/mol  
10 232    22384.6
11 265.3    25597.6
12 369    35603.1
13 401    38690.6
14 435    41971.1
15 484    46698.9
16 520    50172.4
17 557    53742.3
18 633    61075.2
19 670.588    64701.9
ионизационный потенциал   eV 10  kJ/mol  
20 1697    163735.6
21 1804    174059.5
22 1916    184865.9
23 2060    198759.7
24 2182    210530.9
25 2308    222688.1
26 2478    239090.6
27 2587.5    249655.7
28 11062.38    1067357.2
29 11567.617    1116105.1

термохимия

Удельная теплоемкость: 0.385 J/g°C 11 = 24.465 J/mol°C = 0.092 cal/g°C = 5.847 cal/mol°C
Теплопроводность: 401 (W/m)/K, 27°C 12
Теплота плавления: 13.05 kJ/mol 13 = 205.4 J/g
Теплота парообразования: 300.3 kJ/mol 14 = 4725.7 J/g
Состояние материи Энтальпия образования (ΔHf°)15 Энтропия (S°)15 Свободная энергия Гиббса (ΔGf°)15
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 7.923 33.149832 0 0
(g) 80.86 338.31824 39.74 166.27216 71.37 298.61208

Изотопы

нуклид масса 16 Период полураспада 16 Ядерный Спин 16 энергия связи
52Cu 51.99718(28)# (3+)# 399.81 MeV
53Cu 52.98555(28)# <300 ns (3/2-)# 419.06 MeV
54Cu 53.97671(23)# <75 ns (3+)# 435.52 MeV
55Cu 54.96605(32)# 40# ms [>200 ns] 3/2-# 452.90 MeV
56Cu 55.95856(15)# 93(3) ms (4+) 468.43 MeV
57Cu 56.949211(17) 196.3(7) ms 3/2- 484.88 MeV
58Cu 57.9445385(17) 3.204(7) s 1+ 497.61 MeV
59Cu 58.9394980(8) 81.5(5) s 3/2- 510.34 MeV
60Cu 59.9373650(18) 23.7(4) min 2+ 520.27 MeV
61Cu 60.9334578(11) 3.333(5) h 3/2- 532.07 MeV
62Cu 61.932584(4) 9.673(8) min 1+ 541.07 MeV
63Cu 62.9295975(6) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 3/2- 551.94 MeV
64Cu 63.9297642(6) 12.700(2) h 1+ 560.01 MeV
65Cu 64.9277895(7) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 3/2- 569.95 MeV
66Cu 65.9288688(7) 5.120(14) min 1+ 577.09 MeV
67Cu 66.9277303(13) 61.83(12) h 3/2- 586.09 MeV
68Cu 67.9296109(17) 31.1(15) s 1+ 592.30 MeV
69Cu 68.9294293(15) 2.85(15) min 3/2- 600.37 MeV
70Cu 69.9323923(17) 44.5(2) s (6-) 605.64 MeV
71Cu 70.9326768(16) 19.4(14) s (3/2-) 613.72 MeV
72Cu 71.9358203(15) 6.6(1) s (1+) 618.99 MeV
73Cu 72.936675(4) 4.2(3) s (3/2-) 626.13 MeV
74Cu 73.939875(7) 1.594(10) s (1+,3+) 631.41 MeV
75Cu 74.94190(105) 1.224(3) s (3/2-)# 637.62 MeV
76Cu 75.945275(7) 641(6) ms (3,5) 641.96 MeV
77Cu 76.94785(43)# 469(8) ms 3/2-# 648.17 MeV
78Cu 77.95196(43)# 342(11) ms 652.52 MeV
79Cu 78.95456(54)# 188(25) ms 3/2-# 657.79 MeV
80Cu 79.96087(64)# 100# ms [>300 ns] 660.28 MeV
Значения, отмеченные # не чисто получены из экспериментальных данных, но, по крайней мере, частично от систематических тенденций. Спины с аргументами слабые присваивания заключены в круглые скобки. 16

Реакции

изобилие

Земля - Исходные соединения: sulfides 22
Земля - морская вода: 0.00025 mg/L 23
Земля -  корка:  60 mg/kg = 0.006% 23
Земля -  литосфера:  0.007% 24
Земля -  Всего:  31 ppm 25
Планета Меркурий) -  Всего:  5.1 ppm 25
Венера -  Всего:  35 ppm 25
Хондриты - Всего: 250 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 26
Тело человека - Всего: 0.0001% 27

соединений

Цены





Информация по технике безопасности


Паспорт безопасности - ACI Alloys, Inc.

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Внешние ссылки:

журналы:
(1) Bower, Bruce. David, Solomon May Have Been Kings of Copper. Science News, November 22, 2008, pp 10.
(2) Moyer, Michael. How Much is Left?. Scientific American, September 2010, pp 74-81.

источники

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:9.
(2) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 912.
(3) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 926-7.
(4) - Brownlee, Raymond B., Fuller, Robert W., and Whitsit, Jesse E. Elements of Chemistry; Allyn and Bacon: Boston, Massachusetts, 1959; p 537.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(7) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(9) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(14) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(15) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(16) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(17) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill: Boston, MA, 2006; p 127.
(18) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 135.
(19) - Swaddle, T.W. Inorganic Chemistry; Academic Press: San Diego, 1997; p 386.
(20) - Zumdahl, Steven and Zumdahl, Susan A. Chemistry 9th ed.; Brooks/Cole: Belmont, CA, 2014; p 133.
(21) - Zumdahl, Steven and Zumdahl, Susan A. Chemistry 9th ed.; Brooks/Cole: Belmont, CA, 2014; p 132.
(22) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(23) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(24) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 964.
(25) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(26) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.
(27) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 7:17.