АРГОН

Введение

атомный номер: 18
группа: 18 or VIII A
Атомный вес: 39.948
период: 3
Количество CAS: 7440-37-1

классификация

халькогеном
галоген
Благородный газ
лантаноидное
актиноидов
Редкоземельный элемент
Металлов платиновой группы
трансурановый элемент
Нет стабильных изотопов
твердое тело
жидкость
газ
твердое тело (предсказанный)

Описание • Использование / функции

Its presence in air wassuspected by Cavendish in 1785, discovered by Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay in 1894. The gas is prepared by fractionation of liquid air,the atmosphere containing 0.94% argon. The atmosphere of Mars contains 1.6% of 40Ar and 5 p.p.m. of 36Ar. Argon is two and one half times as solublein water as nitrogen, having about the same solubility as oxygen. It is recognized by the characteristic lines in the red end of the spectrum. It is usedin electric light bulbs and in fluorescent tubes at a pressure of about 400 Pa, and in filling photo tubes, glow tubes, etc. Argon is also used as an inertgas shield for arc welding and cutting, as a blanket for the production of titanium and other reactive elements, and as a protective atmosphere for growingsilicon and germanium crystals. Argon is colorless and odorless, both as a gas and liquid. It is available in high-purity form. Commercial argon isavailable at a cost of about 3¢ per cubic foot. Argon is considered to be a very inert gas and is not known to form true chemical compounds, as do krypton,xenon, and radon. However, it does form a hydrate having a dissociation pressure of 105 atm at 0°C. Ion molecules such as (ArKr)+, (ArXe)+, (NeAr)+have been observed spectroscopically. Argon also forms a clathrate with b-hydroquinone. This clathrate is stable and can be stored for a considerabletime, but a true chemical bond does not exist. Van der Waals’ forces act to hold the argon. Naturally occurring argon is a mixture of three isotopes.Seventeen other radioactive isotopes are now known to exist. Commercial argon is priced at about $70/300 cu. ft. or 8.5 cu. meters. 1

• "Both helium and argon are used in large amounts in noble-gas-shielded arc-welding processes. The noble gas protects the hot welded metal from oxidation by air...In addition to its use in arc-welding, argon is used in filling incandescent and fluorescent lamps. The presence of the noble gas in incandescent lamps retards the sublimation of the filament and thus both prolongs the life of the lamp and retards its blackening. In fluorescent lamps, argon serves as an ionizable gas for starting the lamp and for carrying the current during its operation." 2
• "Argon is often used in chemical laboratories to provide an inert atmosphere for the handling of substances that are reactive toward water, oxygen, or nitrogen." 3
• "inert atmosphere for welding...filling incandescent light bulbs" 4
• "In 1914, Langmuir...substituted argon, [in place of nitrogen] which was a little more expensive but which increased the lifetime of the bulbs more than enough to compensate for the additional cost. Electric light bulbs are routinely argon-filled now, so that the first important industrial use of the noble gases still retains its value.

The inertness of argon is its most important characteristic as far as uses are concerned. This is true in light bulbs, and it is true so far as argon's connection with welding is concerned.

In 1929...A jet of argon gas was pushed through the arc so that it constantly enveloped the area to be welded. Such shielded arc-welding produced excellent joints of full strength, not only in steel, but in other metals such as copper, nickel, magnesium, and so on. The most important single use of argon is in connection with shielded arc-welding nowadays.

Argon is also used on other occasions where it is important to keep oxygen and nitrogen away. For instance, aluminum can be cut by an "atomic hydrogen torch"...However, in the presence of air, the melting aluminum combines readily with oxygen, and the brittle oxide flakes away, so that the cut is ragged and irregular. For that reason, argon is added to the hydrogen. It doesn't affect the reunion of hydrogen atoms, but does serve to surround the melting aluminum with an inert atmosphere.

Argon is also used in the preparation of metallic titanium...Today titanium is prepared under an atmosphere of argon, and the resultant pure titanium is particularly tough and strong.

Other elements, like silicon and germanium, must be produced as extremely pure crystals...The necessary purity can be achieved when the crystals are grown under argon." 5

Физические свойства

Температура плавления:6*  -189.35 °C = 83.8 K = -308.83 °F
Точка кипения:6* -185.85 °C = 87.3 K = -302.53 °F
возгонки:6 
тройная точка:6 
Критическая точка:6 -122.28 °C = 150.87 K = -188.104 °F 6
плотность:7  1.633 g/L

* - at 1 atm

Электронная конфигурация

Электронная конфигурация: [Ne] 3s2 3p6
блок: p
Самый высокий уровень энергии Занято: 3
валентных электронов: 8

Квантовые числа:

n = 3
ℓ = 1
m = 1
ms = -½

Связующие

сродства к электрону:8 not stable eV
Окисление Штаты: 0

ионизационный потенциал   eV 9  kJ/mol  
1 15.75962    1520.6
2 27.62967    2665.9
3 40.74    3930.8
4 59.81    5770.8
5 75.02    7238.3
6 91.009    8781.0
ионизационный потенциал   eV 9  kJ/mol  
7 124.323    11995.3
8 143.46    13841.8
9 422.45    40760.2
10 478.69    46186.6
11 538.96    52001.7
12 618.26    59653.0
ионизационный потенциал   eV 9  kJ/mol  
13 686.1    66198.6
14 755.74    72917.8
15 854.77    82472.7
16 918.03    88576.4
17 4120.8857    397604.9
18 4426.2296    427066.1

термохимия

Удельная теплоемкость: 0.520 J/g°C 10 = 20.773 J/mol°C = 0.124 cal/g°C = 4.965 cal/mol°C
Теплопроводность: 0.01772 (W/m)/K, 27°C 11
Теплота плавления: 1.188 kJ/mol 12 = 29.7 J/g
Теплота парообразования: 6.447 kJ/mol 13 = 161.4 J/g
Состояние материи Энтальпия образования (ΔHf°)14 Энтропия (S°)14 Свободная энергия Гиббса (ΔGf°)14
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(g) 0 0 36.982 154.732688 0 0

Изотопы

нуклид масса 15 Период полураспада 15 Ядерный Спин 15 энергия связи
30Ar 30.02156(32)# <20 ns 0+ 208.50 MeV
31Ar 31.01212(22)# 14.4(6) ms 5/2(+#) 224.95 MeV
32Ar 31.9976380(19) 98(2) ms 0+ 246.99 MeV
33Ar 32.9899257(5) 173.0(20) ms 1/2+ 262.52 MeV
34Ar 33.9802712(4) 844.5(34) ms 0+ 278.97 MeV
35Ar 34.9752576(8) 1.775(4) s 3/2+ 291.70 MeV
36Ar 35.967545106(29) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 0+ 307.22 MeV
37Ar 36.96677632(22) 35.04(4) d 3/2+ 316.23 MeV
38Ar 37.9627324(4) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 0+ 328.02 MeV
39Ar 38.964313(5) 269(3) a 7/2- 334.23 MeV
40Ar 39.9623831225(29) СТАБИЛЬНЫЙ 0+ 344.17 MeV
41Ar 40.9645006(4) 109.61(4) min 7/2- 350.38 MeV
42Ar 41.963046(6) 32.9(11) a 0+ 359.38 MeV
43Ar 42.965636(6) 5.37(6) min (5/2-) 365.59 MeV
44Ar 43.9649240(17) 11.87(5) min 0+ 374.59 MeV
45Ar 44.9680400(6) 21.48(15) s (1/2,3/2,5/2)- 378.93 MeV
46Ar 45.96809(4) 8.4(6) s 0+ 387.01 MeV
47Ar 46.97219(11) 1.23(3) s 3/2-# 391.35 MeV
48Ar 47.97454(32)# 0.48(40) s 0+ 397.56 MeV
49Ar 48.98052(54)# 170(50) ms 3/2-# 400.04 MeV
50Ar 49.98443(75)# 85(30) ms 0+ 404.39 MeV
51Ar 50.99163(75)# 60# ms [>200 ns] 3/2-# 405.94 MeV
52Ar 51.99678(97)# 10# ms 0+ 409.35 MeV
53Ar 53.00494(107)# 3# ms (5/2-)# 409.97 MeV
Значения, отмеченные # не чисто получены из экспериментальных данных, но, по крайней мере, частично от систематических тенденций. Спины с аргументами слабые присваивания заключены в круглые скобки. 15

изобилие

Земля - Исходные соединения: uncombined 16
Земля - морская вода: 0.45 mg/L 17
Земля -  корка:  3.5 mg/kg = 0.00035% 17
Земля -  Всего:  2.20E-8 cm^3/g 18
Планета Меркурий) -  Всего:  18
Венера -  Всего:  210E-8 cm^3/g 18
Хондриты - Всего: 0.4 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 19

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Внешние ссылки:

источники

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:4.
(2) - Jolly, William L. The Chemistry of the Non-Metals; Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1966; p 23.
(3) - Jolly, William L. The Chemistry of the Non-Metals; Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1966; p 23.
(4) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 944.
(5) - Asimov, Isaac. The Noble Gases; Basic Books, Inc.: New York City, 1966; pp 83-85.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(14) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(15) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(16) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(17) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(18) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(19) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.