TELÚRIO

Introdução

Número atômico: 52
Grupo: 16 or VI A
Peso atômico: 127.6
Período: 5
Número CAS: 13494-80-9

Classificação

Calcogênio
halogênio
Gás nobre
Lantanóides
Actinóide
Terra-rara
Platinum Metal Group
Transuranium
Não Isótopos Estáveis
Sólido
Líquido
Gás
Sólido (previsto)

Descrição • Usos / Função

Discovered by Muller von Reichenstein in 1782; named by Klaproth, who isolated it in 1798. Tellurium is occasionally found native, but is more often found asthe telluride of gold (calaverite), and combined with other metals. It is recovered commercially from the anode muds produced during the electrolyticrefining of blister copper. The U.S., Canada, Peru, and Japan are the largest Free World producers of the element. Crystalline tellurium has a silverywhiteappearance, and when pure exhibits a metallic luster. It is brittle and easily pulverized. Amorphous tellurium is formed by precipitating telluriumfrom a solution of telluric or tellurous acid. Whether this form is truly amorphous, or made of minute crystals, is open to question. Tellurium is a ptypesemiconductor, and shows greater conductivity in certain directions, depending on alignment of the atoms. Its conductivity increases slightly withexposure to light. It can be doped with silver, copper, gold, tin, or other elements. In air, tellurium burns with a greenish-blue flame, forming the dioxide.Molten tellurium corrodes iron, copper, and stainless steel. Tellurium and its compounds are probably toxic and should be handled with care. Workmenexposed to as little as 0.01 mg/m^3 of air, or less, develop “tellurium breath,” which has a garlic-like odor. Forty two isotopes and isomers of telluriumare known, with atomic masses ranging from 106 to 138. Natural tellurium consists of eight isotopes, two of which are radioactive with very long halflives.Tellurium improves the machinability of copper and stainless steel, and its addition to lead decreases the corrosive action of sulfuric acid on leadand improves its strength and hardness. Tellurium is used as a basic ingredient in blasting caps, and is added to cast iron for chill control. Telluriumis used in ceramics. Bismuth telluride has been used in thermoelectric devices. Tellurium costs about 20¢/g, with a purity of about 99.5%. The metalwith a purity of 99.9999% costs about $2/g. 1

• "It is added to some metals, particularly lead, to increase electrical resistance and improve resistance to heat, corrosion, mechanical shock, and wear." 2

Propriedades físicas

Ponto de fusão:3*  449.51 °C = 722.66 K = 841.118 °F
Ponto de ebulição:3* 988 °C = 1261.15 K = 1810.4 °F
Ponto de sublimação:3 
Ponto Triplo:3 
Ponto crítico:3 
Densidade:4  6.24 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Configuração Electron

Configuração Electron: [Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p4
Quadra: p
Mais alto nível de energia Ocupado: 5
Elétrons de valência: 6

Números quânticos:

n = 5
ℓ = 1
m = -1
ms = -½

Colagem

Eletronegatividade (escala Pauling):5 2.1
Electropositivity (escala Pauling): 1.9
Electron Affinity:6 1.9708 eV
oxidação Unidos: +4,6,-2
Função no trabalho:7 4.70 eV = 7.5294E-19 J

potencial de ionização   eV 8  kJ/mol  
1 9.0096    869.3
2 18.6    1794.6
potencial de ionização   eV 8  kJ/mol  
3 27.96    2697.7
4 37.41    3609.5
potencial de ionização   eV 8  kJ/mol  
5 58.75    5668.5
6 70.7    6821.5
7 137    13218.5

Termoquímica

Calor específico: 0.202 J/g°C 9 = 25.775 J/mol°C = 0.048 cal/g°C = 6.160 cal/mol°C
Condutividade térmica: 2.35 (W/m)/K, 27°C 10
Calor de fusão: 17.49 kJ/mol 11 = 137.1 J/g
Calor da vaporização: 52.55 kJ/mol 12 = 411.8 J/g
Estado da matéria Entalpia de formação (ΔHf°)13 entropia (S°)13 Gibbs Energia Livre (ΔGf°)13
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 11.88 49.70592 0 0
(g) 47.02 196.73168 43.65 182.6316 37.55 157.1092

isótopos

nuclide Massa 14 Meia vida 14 spin nuclear 14 Energia de ligação
105Te 104.94364(54)# 1# μs 5/2+# 862.69 MeV
106Te 105.93750(14) 70(20) μs [70(+20-10) μs] 0+ 880.08 MeV
107Te 106.93501(32)# 3.1(1) ms 5/2+# 888.15 MeV
108Te 107.92944(11) 2.1(1) s 0+ 905.54 MeV
109Te 108.92742(7) 4.6(3) s (5/2+) 913.61 MeV
110Te 109.92241(6) 18.6(8) s 0+ 921.68 MeV
111Te 110.92111(8) 19.3(4) s (5/2)+# 929.75 MeV
112Te 111.91701(18) 2.0(2) min 0+ 947.14 MeV
113Te 112.91589(3) 1.7(2) min (7/2+) 955.21 MeV
114Te 113.91209(3) 15.2(7) min 0+ 963.28 MeV
115Te 114.91190(3) 5.8(2) min 7/2+ 971.35 MeV
116Te 115.90846(3) 2.49(4) h 0+ 988.74 MeV
117Te 116.908645(14) 62(2) min 1/2+ 996.81 MeV
118Te 117.905828(16) 6.00(2) d 0+ 1,004.88 MeV
119Te 118.906404(9) 16.05(5) h 1/2+ 1,012.95 MeV
120Te 119.90402(1) ESTÁVEL 0+ 1,021.02 MeV
121Te 120.904936(28) 19.16(5) d 1/2+ 1,029.10 MeV
122Te 121.9030439(16) ESTÁVEL 0+ 1,037.17 MeV
123Te 122.9042700(16) >600E+12 a 1/2+ 1,045.24 MeV
124Te 123.9028179(16) ESTÁVEL 0+ 1,053.31 MeV
125Te 124.9044307(16) ESTÁVEL 1/2+ 1,061.38 MeV
126Te 125.9033117(16) ESTÁVEL 0+ 1,069.45 MeV
127Te 126.9052263(16) 9.35(7) h 3/2+ 1,077.52 MeV
128Te 127.9044631(19) 2.2(3)E+24 a 0+ 1,085.59 MeV
129Te 128.9065982(19) 69.6(3) min 3/2+ 1,093.67 MeV
130Te 129.9062244(21) 790(100)E+18 a 0+ 1,101.74 MeV
131Te 130.9085239(21) 25.0(1) min 3/2+ 1,109.81 MeV
132Te 131.908553(7) 3.204(13) d 0+ 1,117.88 MeV
133Te 132.910955(26) 12.5(3) min (3/2+) 1,116.64 MeV
134Te 133.911369(11) 41.8(8) min 0+ 1,124.71 MeV
135Te 134.91645(10) 19.0(2) s (7/2-) 1,132.78 MeV
136Te 135.92010(5) 17.63(8) s 0+ 1,131.54 MeV
137Te 136.92532(13) 2.49(5) s 3/2-# 1,139.61 MeV
138Te 137.92922(22)# 1.4(4) s 0+ 1,147.68 MeV
139Te 138.93473(43)# 500# ms [>300 ns] 5/2-# 1,146.43 MeV
140Te 139.93885(32)# 300# ms [>300 ns] 0+ 1,154.51 MeV
141Te 140.94465(43)# 100# ms [>300 ns] 5/2-# 1,153.26 MeV
142Te 141.94908(64)# 50# ms [>300 ns] 0+ 1,161.33 MeV
Os valores marcados # não são puramente derivado a partir de dados experimentais, mas, pelo menos, parcialmente a partir de tendências sistemáticas. Gira com argumentos de atribuição fracos estão entre parênteses. 14

Abundância

Terra - Os compostos de origem: sulfides 15
Terra -  crosta:  0.001 mg/kg = 0.0000001% 15
Terra -  Total:  1490 ppb 16
Planeta Mercúrio) -  Total:  122 ppb 16
Vênus -  Total:  830 ppb 16
condritos - Total: 0.60 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 17

compostos

Informação de Segurança


Material Safety Data Sheet - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Para maiores informações

Links externos:

Fontes

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:31.
(2) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 953.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(6) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(12) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(13) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(14) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(15) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(16) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(17) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.