KSENON

Wprowadzenie

Liczba atomowa: 54
Grupa: 18 or VIII A
Masa atomowa: 131.293
Okres: 5
Numer CAS: 7440-63-3

Klasyfikacja

tlenowce
Fluorowiec
Gaz szlachetny
lantanowców
Actinoid
Rare Earth Element
Platinum Grupa Metal
Transuran
Brak stabilnego Izotopy
Solidny
Ciekły
Gaz
Solidny (przewidywane)

Opis • Zastosowania / Funkcja

Discovered by Ramsay and Travers in 1898 in the residue left after evaporating liquid air components. Xenon isa member of the so-called noble or “inert” gases. It is present in the atmosphere to the extent of about one part in twenty million. Xenon is present inthe Martian atmosphere to the extent of 0.08 ppm. The element is found in the gases evolved from certain mineral springs, and is commercially obtainedby extraction from liquid air. Natural xenon is composed of nine stable isotopes. In addition to these, thirty five unstable isotopes and isomers havebeen characterized. Before 1962, it had generally been assumed that xenon and other noble gases were unable to form compounds. Evidence has beenmounting in the past few years that xenon, as well as other members of the zero valence elements, do form compounds. Among the “compounds” ofxenon now reported are xenon hydrate, sodium perxenate, xenon deuterate, difluoride, tetrafluoride, hexafluoride, and XePtf6 and XeRhf6. Xenontrioxide, which is highly explosive, has been prepared. More than 80 xenon compounds have been made with xenon chemically bonded to fluorineand oxygen. Some xenon compounds are colored. Metallic xenon has been produced, using several hundred kilobars of pressure. Xenon in a vacuumtube produces a beautiful blue glow when excited by an electrical discharge. The gas is used in making electron tubes, stroboscopic lamps, bactericidallamps, and lamps used to excite ruby lasers for generating coherent light. Xenon is used in the atomic energy field in bubble chambers, probes, andother applications where its high molecular weight is of value. The perxenates are used in analytical chemistry as oxidizing agents. 133Xe and 135Xeare produced by neutron irradiation in air cooled nuclear reactors. 133Xe has useful applications as a radioisotope. The element is available in sealedglass containers for about $20/L of gas at standard pressure. Xenon is not toxic, but its compounds are highly toxic because of their strong oxidizingcharacteristics. 1

• "Krypton and xenon are likewise used, but to a much smaller extent, in the filling of fluorescent lamps and other special lamps." 2
• "Xe and Kr mixture in high-intensity, short-exposure photographic flash tubes" 3

Właściwości fizyczne

Temperatura topnienia:4
Temperatura wrzenia:4* -108.12 °C = 165.03 K = -162.616 °F
Punkt sublimacji:4 
Punkt potrójny:4 -111.79 °C = 161.36 K = -169.222 °F at 81.6 kPa
Punkt krytyczny:4 16.62 °C = 289.77 K = 61.916 °F 4
Gęstość:5  5.366 g/L

* - at 1 atm

Konfiguracja elektronów

Konfiguracja elektronów: [Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p6
Blok: p
Najwyższy poziom energii Zajęte: 5
Elektrony walencyjne: 8

Liczby kwantowe:

n = 5
ℓ = 1
m = 1
ms = -½

klejenie

elektroujemność (Paulinga):6 2.60
Electropositivity (Paulinga): 1.4
powinowactwo elektronowe:7 not stable eV
utlenianie Zjednoczone: 0

Potencjał jonizacyjny   eV 8  kJ/mol  
1 12.1298    1170.3
Potencjał jonizacyjny   eV 8  kJ/mol  
2 21.20979    2046.4
Potencjał jonizacyjny   eV 8  kJ/mol  
3 32.123    3099.4

Termochemia

Ciepło właściwe: 0.158 J/g°C 9 = 20.744 J/mol°C = 0.038 cal/g°C = 4.958 cal/mol°C
Przewodność cieplna: 0.00569 (W/m)/K, 27°C 10
Ciepło topnienia: 2.297 kJ/mol 11 = 17.5 J/g
Ciepło parowania: 12.636 kJ/mol 12 = 96.2 J/g
Stan skupienia Entalpia formacji (ΔHf°)13 Entropia (S°)13 Gibbs Free Energy (ΔGf°)13
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(g) 0 0 40.529 169.573336 0 0

izotopy

nuklidu Masa 14 Pół życia 14 spin jądrowy 14 Energia wiązania
110Xe 109.94428(14) 310(190) ms [105(+35-25) ms] 0+ 901.49 MeV
111Xe 110.94160(33)# 740(200) ms 5/2+# 909.56 MeV
112Xe 111.93562(11) 2.7(8) s 0+ 926.94 MeV
113Xe 112.93334(9) 2.74(8) s (5/2+)# 935.02 MeV
114Xe 113.927980(12) 10.0(4) s 0+ 952.40 MeV
115Xe 114.926294(13) 18(4) s (5/2+) 960.47 MeV
116Xe 115.921581(14) 59(2) s 0+ 968.54 MeV
117Xe 116.920359(11) 61(2) s 5/2(+) 976.62 MeV
118Xe 117.916179(11) 3.8(9) min 0+ 994.00 MeV
119Xe 118.915411(11) 5.8(3) min 5/2(+) 1,002.07 MeV
120Xe 119.911784(13) 40(1) min 0+ 1,010.14 MeV
121Xe 120.911462(12) 40.1(20) min (5/2+) 1,018.22 MeV
122Xe 121.908368(12) 20.1(1) h 0+ 1,035.60 MeV
123Xe 122.908482(10) 2.08(2) h 1/2+ 1,043.67 MeV
124Xe 123.905893(2) STABILNY 0+ 1,051.74 MeV
125Xe 124.9063955(20) 16.9(2) h 1/2(+) 1,059.82 MeV
126Xe 125.904274(7) STABILNY 0+ 1,067.89 MeV
127Xe 126.905184(4) 36.345(3) d 1/2+ 1,075.96 MeV
128Xe 127.9035313(15) STABILNY 0+ 1,084.03 MeV
129Xe 128.9047794(8) STABILNY 1/2+ 1,092.10 MeV
130Xe 129.9035080(8) STABILNY 0+ 1,100.17 MeV
131Xe 130.9050824(10) STABILNY 3/2+ 1,108.24 MeV
132Xe 131.9041535(10) STABILNY 0+ 1,116.32 MeV
133Xe 132.9059107(26) 5.2475(5) d 3/2+ 1,124.39 MeV
134Xe 133.9053945(9) STABILNY 0+ 1,132.46 MeV
135Xe 134.907227(5) 9.14(2) h 3/2+ 1,140.53 MeV
136Xe 135.907219(8) STABILNY 0+ 1,148.60 MeV
137Xe 136.911562(8) 3.818(13) min 7/2- 1,147.36 MeV
138Xe 137.91395(5) 14.08(8) min 0+ 1,155.43 MeV
139Xe 138.918793(22) 39.68(14) s 3/2- 1,163.50 MeV
140Xe 139.92164(7) 13.60(10) s 0+ 1,162.26 MeV
141Xe 140.92665(10) 1.73(1) s 5/2(-#) 1,170.33 MeV
142Xe 141.92971(11) 1.22(2) s 0+ 1,178.40 MeV
143Xe 142.93511(21)# 0.511(6) s 5/2- 1,177.15 MeV
144Xe 143.93851(32)# 0.388(7) s 0+ 1,185.23 MeV
145Xe 144.94407(32)# 188(4) ms (3/2-)# 1,183.98 MeV
146Xe 145.94775(43)# 146(6) ms 0+ 1,192.05 MeV
147Xe 146.95356(43)# 130(80) ms [0.10(+10-5) s] 3/2-# 1,190.81 MeV
Wartości oznaczone # nie jest całkowicie pochodzą z danych doświadczalnych, ale przynajmniej częściowo z systematycznej tendencji. Obraca się słabe argumenty przypisania są w nawiasach. 14

Obfitość

Ziemia - Związki źródłowe: uncombined 15
Ziemia - Woda morska: 0.00005 mg/L 16
Ziemia -  Skorupa:  0.00003 mg/kg = 0.000000003% 16
Ziemia -  Całkowity:  0.0168E-8 cm^3/g 17
Merkury) -  Całkowity:  17
Wenus -  Całkowity:  1.61E-8 cm^3/g 17
chondrytach - Całkowity: 0.7×10-5 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 18

związki

Informacje dotyczące bezpieczeństwa


Karta Charakterystyki - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Po więcej informacji

Linki zewnętrzne:

źródła

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:34-4:35.
(2) - Jolly, William L. The Chemistry of the Non-Metals; Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1966; p 23.
(3) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 944.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(12) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(13) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(14) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(15) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(16) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(17) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.