TELLUR

Wprowadzenie

Liczba atomowa: 52
Grupa: 16 or VI A
Masa atomowa: 127.6
Okres: 5
Numer CAS: 13494-80-9

Klasyfikacja

tlenowce
Fluorowiec
Gaz szlachetny
lantanowców
Actinoid
Rare Earth Element
Platinum Grupa Metal
Transuran
Brak stabilnego Izotopy
Solidny
Ciekły
Gaz
Solidny (przewidywane)

Opis • Zastosowania / Funkcja

Discovered by Muller von Reichenstein in 1782; named by Klaproth, who isolated it in 1798. Tellurium is occasionally found native, but is more often found asthe telluride of gold (calaverite), and combined with other metals. It is recovered commercially from the anode muds produced during the electrolyticrefining of blister copper. The U.S., Canada, Peru, and Japan are the largest Free World producers of the element. Crystalline tellurium has a silverywhiteappearance, and when pure exhibits a metallic luster. It is brittle and easily pulverized. Amorphous tellurium is formed by precipitating telluriumfrom a solution of telluric or tellurous acid. Whether this form is truly amorphous, or made of minute crystals, is open to question. Tellurium is a ptypesemiconductor, and shows greater conductivity in certain directions, depending on alignment of the atoms. Its conductivity increases slightly withexposure to light. It can be doped with silver, copper, gold, tin, or other elements. In air, tellurium burns with a greenish-blue flame, forming the dioxide.Molten tellurium corrodes iron, copper, and stainless steel. Tellurium and its compounds are probably toxic and should be handled with care. Workmenexposed to as little as 0.01 mg/m^3 of air, or less, develop “tellurium breath,” which has a garlic-like odor. Forty two isotopes and isomers of telluriumare known, with atomic masses ranging from 106 to 138. Natural tellurium consists of eight isotopes, two of which are radioactive with very long halflives.Tellurium improves the machinability of copper and stainless steel, and its addition to lead decreases the corrosive action of sulfuric acid on leadand improves its strength and hardness. Tellurium is used as a basic ingredient in blasting caps, and is added to cast iron for chill control. Telluriumis used in ceramics. Bismuth telluride has been used in thermoelectric devices. Tellurium costs about 20¢/g, with a purity of about 99.5%. The metalwith a purity of 99.9999% costs about $2/g. 1

• "It is added to some metals, particularly lead, to increase electrical resistance and improve resistance to heat, corrosion, mechanical shock, and wear." 2

Właściwości fizyczne

Temperatura topnienia:3*  449.51 °C = 722.66 K = 841.118 °F
Temperatura wrzenia:3* 988 °C = 1261.15 K = 1810.4 °F
Punkt sublimacji:3 
Punkt potrójny:3 
Punkt krytyczny:3 
Gęstość:4  6.24 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Konfiguracja elektronów

Konfiguracja elektronów: [Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p4
Blok: p
Najwyższy poziom energii Zajęte: 5
Elektrony walencyjne: 6

Liczby kwantowe:

n = 5
ℓ = 1
m = -1
ms = -½

klejenie

elektroujemność (Paulinga):5 2.1
Electropositivity (Paulinga): 1.9
powinowactwo elektronowe:6 1.9708 eV
utlenianie Zjednoczone: +4,6,-2
Funkcja pracy:7 4.70 eV = 7.5294E-19 J

Potencjał jonizacyjny   eV 8  kJ/mol  
1 9.0096    869.3
2 18.6    1794.6
Potencjał jonizacyjny   eV 8  kJ/mol  
3 27.96    2697.7
4 37.41    3609.5
Potencjał jonizacyjny   eV 8  kJ/mol  
5 58.75    5668.5
6 70.7    6821.5
7 137    13218.5

Termochemia

Ciepło właściwe: 0.202 J/g°C 9 = 25.775 J/mol°C = 0.048 cal/g°C = 6.160 cal/mol°C
Przewodność cieplna: 2.35 (W/m)/K, 27°C 10
Ciepło topnienia: 17.49 kJ/mol 11 = 137.1 J/g
Ciepło parowania: 52.55 kJ/mol 12 = 411.8 J/g
Stan skupienia Entalpia formacji (ΔHf°)13 Entropia (S°)13 Gibbs Free Energy (ΔGf°)13
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 11.88 49.70592 0 0
(g) 47.02 196.73168 43.65 182.6316 37.55 157.1092

izotopy

nuklidu Masa 14 Pół życia 14 spin jądrowy 14 Energia wiązania
105Te 104.94364(54)# 1# μs 5/2+# 862.69 MeV
106Te 105.93750(14) 70(20) μs [70(+20-10) μs] 0+ 880.08 MeV
107Te 106.93501(32)# 3.1(1) ms 5/2+# 888.15 MeV
108Te 107.92944(11) 2.1(1) s 0+ 905.54 MeV
109Te 108.92742(7) 4.6(3) s (5/2+) 913.61 MeV
110Te 109.92241(6) 18.6(8) s 0+ 921.68 MeV
111Te 110.92111(8) 19.3(4) s (5/2)+# 929.75 MeV
112Te 111.91701(18) 2.0(2) min 0+ 947.14 MeV
113Te 112.91589(3) 1.7(2) min (7/2+) 955.21 MeV
114Te 113.91209(3) 15.2(7) min 0+ 963.28 MeV
115Te 114.91190(3) 5.8(2) min 7/2+ 971.35 MeV
116Te 115.90846(3) 2.49(4) h 0+ 988.74 MeV
117Te 116.908645(14) 62(2) min 1/2+ 996.81 MeV
118Te 117.905828(16) 6.00(2) d 0+ 1,004.88 MeV
119Te 118.906404(9) 16.05(5) h 1/2+ 1,012.95 MeV
120Te 119.90402(1) STABILNY 0+ 1,021.02 MeV
121Te 120.904936(28) 19.16(5) d 1/2+ 1,029.10 MeV
122Te 121.9030439(16) STABILNY 0+ 1,037.17 MeV
123Te 122.9042700(16) >600E+12 a 1/2+ 1,045.24 MeV
124Te 123.9028179(16) STABILNY 0+ 1,053.31 MeV
125Te 124.9044307(16) STABILNY 1/2+ 1,061.38 MeV
126Te 125.9033117(16) STABILNY 0+ 1,069.45 MeV
127Te 126.9052263(16) 9.35(7) h 3/2+ 1,077.52 MeV
128Te 127.9044631(19) 2.2(3)E+24 a 0+ 1,085.59 MeV
129Te 128.9065982(19) 69.6(3) min 3/2+ 1,093.67 MeV
130Te 129.9062244(21) 790(100)E+18 a 0+ 1,101.74 MeV
131Te 130.9085239(21) 25.0(1) min 3/2+ 1,109.81 MeV
132Te 131.908553(7) 3.204(13) d 0+ 1,117.88 MeV
133Te 132.910955(26) 12.5(3) min (3/2+) 1,116.64 MeV
134Te 133.911369(11) 41.8(8) min 0+ 1,124.71 MeV
135Te 134.91645(10) 19.0(2) s (7/2-) 1,132.78 MeV
136Te 135.92010(5) 17.63(8) s 0+ 1,131.54 MeV
137Te 136.92532(13) 2.49(5) s 3/2-# 1,139.61 MeV
138Te 137.92922(22)# 1.4(4) s 0+ 1,147.68 MeV
139Te 138.93473(43)# 500# ms [>300 ns] 5/2-# 1,146.43 MeV
140Te 139.93885(32)# 300# ms [>300 ns] 0+ 1,154.51 MeV
141Te 140.94465(43)# 100# ms [>300 ns] 5/2-# 1,153.26 MeV
142Te 141.94908(64)# 50# ms [>300 ns] 0+ 1,161.33 MeV
Wartości oznaczone # nie jest całkowicie pochodzą z danych doświadczalnych, ale przynajmniej częściowo z systematycznej tendencji. Obraca się słabe argumenty przypisania są w nawiasach. 14

Obfitość

Ziemia - Związki źródłowe: sulfides 15
Ziemia -  Skorupa:  0.001 mg/kg = 0.0000001% 15
Ziemia -  Całkowity:  1490 ppb 16
Merkury) -  Całkowity:  122 ppb 16
Wenus -  Całkowity:  830 ppb 16
chondrytach - Całkowity: 0.60 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 17

związki

Informacje dotyczące bezpieczeństwa


Karta Charakterystyki - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Po więcej informacji

Linki zewnętrzne:

źródła

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:31.
(2) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 953.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(6) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(12) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(13) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(14) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(15) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(16) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(17) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.