SIARKA

Wprowadzenie

Liczba atomowa: 16
Grupa: 16 or VI A
Masa atomowa: 32.065
Okres: 3
Numer CAS: 7704-34-9

Klasyfikacja

tlenowce
Fluorowiec
Gaz szlachetny
lantanowców
Actinoid
Rare Earth Element
Platinum Grupa Metal
Transuran
Brak stabilnego Izotopy
Solidny
Ciekły
Gaz
Solidny (przewidywane)

Opis • Zastosowania / Funkcja

Known to the ancients; referred to in Genesis as brimstone. Sulfur is found in meteorites. A dark area near the crater Aristarchus on the moon has been studied by R. W. Wood with ultraviolet light. This study suggests strongly that it is a sulfur deposit. Sulfur occurs native in the vicinity of volcanoes and hot springs. It is widely distributed in nature as iron pyrites, galena, sphalerite, cinnabar, stibnite, gypsum, Epsom salts, celestite, barite,etc. Sulfur is commercially recovered from wells sunk into the salt domes along the Gulf Coast of the U.S. It is obtained from these wells by the Frasch process, which forces heated water into the wells to melt the sulfur, which is then brought to the surface. Sulfur also occurs in natural gas and petroleum crudes and must be removed from these products. Formerly this was done chemically, which wasted the sulfur. New processes now permit recovery, and these sources promise to be very important. Large amounts of sulfur are being recovered from Alberta gas fields. Sulfur is a pale yellow, odorless, brittle solid, which is insoluble in water but soluble in carbon disulfide. In every state, whether gas, liquid or solid, elemental sulfur occurs in more than one allotropic form or modification; these present a confusing multitude of forms whose relations are not yet fully understood. Amorphous or “plastic” sulfur is obtained by fast cooling of the crystalline form. X-ray studies indicate that amorphous sulfur may have a helical structure with eight atoms per spiral. Crystalline sulfur seems to be made of rings, each containing eight sulfur atoms, which fit together to give a normal X-ray pattern. Seventeen isotopes of sulfur are now recognized. Four occur in natural sulfur, none of which is radioactive. A finely divided form of sulfur, known as flowers of sulfur, is obtained by sublimation. Sulfur readily forms sulfides with many elements. Sulfur is a component of black gunpowder, and is used in the vulcanization of natural rubber and a fungicide. It is also used extensively is making phosphatic fertilizers. A tremendous tonnage is used to produce sulfuric acid, the most important manufactured chemical. It is used in making sulfite paper and other papers, as a fumigant, and in the bleaching of dried fruits. The element is a good electrical insulator. Organic compounds containing sulfur are very important. Calcium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, carbon disulfide, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide are but a few of the many other important compounds of sulfur. Sulfur is essential to life. It is a minor constituent of fats, body fluids, and skeletal minerals. Carbon disulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and sulfur dioxide should be handled carefully. Hydrogen sulfide in small concentrations can be metabolized, but in higher concentrations it quickly can cause death by respiratory paralysis. It is insidious in that it quickly deadens the sense of smell. Sulfur dioxide is a dangerous component in atmospheric air pollution. In 1975, University of Pennsylvania scientists reported synthesis of polymeric sulfur nitride, which has the properties of a metal, although it contains no metal atoms. The material has unusual optical and electrical properties. High-purity sulfur is commercially available in purities of 99.999+%, at a cost of about $50/100 g. 1

• "used in the production of sulfuric acid, H2SO4, the most important of all industrial chemicals. Sulfur is used in the vulcanization of rubber and in the synthesis of many important sulfur-containing organic compounds." 2
• "Free sulfur is used to vulcanize rubber to remove its tackiness and give it greater elasticity." 3

Właściwości fizyczne

Form:4 rhombic
Temperatura topnienia:4*  95.3 °C = 368.45 K = 203.54 °F
Temperatura wrzenia:4* 444.60 °C = 717.75 K = 832.28 °F
Punkt sublimacji:4 
Punkt potrójny:4 
Punkt krytyczny:4 1041 °C = 1314.15 K = 1905.8 °F 4
Form:4 monoclinic
Temperatura topnienia:4*  119.6 °C = 392.75 K = 247.28 °F
Temperatura wrzenia:4* 444.60 °C = 717.75 K = 832.28 °F
Punkt sublimacji:4 
Punkt potrójny:4 
Punkt krytyczny:4 1041 °C = 1314.15 K = 1905.8 °F 4
Gęstość:5  2.07 (all forms) g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Konfiguracja elektronów

Konfiguracja elektronów: [Ne] 3s2 3p4
Blok: p
Najwyższy poziom energii Zajęte: 3
Elektrony walencyjne: 6

Liczby kwantowe:

n = 3
ℓ = 1
m = -1
ms = -½

klejenie

elektroujemność (Paulinga):6 2.58
Electropositivity (Paulinga): 1.42
powinowactwo elektronowe:7 2.077103 eV
utlenianie Zjednoczone: -2

Potencjał jonizacyjny   eV 8  kJ/mol  
1 10.36001    999.6
2 23.3379    2251.8
3 34.79    3356.7
4 47.222    4556.2
5 72.5945    7004.3
Potencjał jonizacyjny   eV 8  kJ/mol  
6 88.053    8495.8
7 280.948    27107.4
8 328.75    31719.5
9 379.55    36621.0
10 447.5    43177.2
Potencjał jonizacyjny   eV 8  kJ/mol  
11 504.8    48705.8
12 564.44    54460.2
13 652.2    62927.7
14 707.01    68216.1
15 3223.78    311047.4
16 3494.1892    337137.9

Termochemia

Ciepło właściwe: 0.710 J/g°C 9 = 22.766 J/mol°C = 0.170 cal/g°C = 5.441 cal/mol°C
Przewodność cieplna: 0.269 (W/m)/K, 27°C 10
Ciepło topnienia: 1.7175 kJ/mol 11 = 53.6 J/g
Ciepło parowania: 
Stan skupienia Entalpia formacji (ΔHf°)12 Entropia (S°)12 Gibbs Free Energy (ΔGf°)12
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s rhombic) 0 0 7.63 31.92392 0 0
(ℓ) 0.34 1.42256 8.4 35.1456 0.09 0.37656
(g) 66.29 277.35736 40.09 167.73656 56.61 236.85624

izotopy

nuklidu Masa 13 Pół życia 13 spin jądrowy 13 Energia wiązania
26S 26.02788(32)# 10# ms 0+ 172.19 MeV
27S 27.01883(22)# 15.5(15) ms (5/2+) 188.64 MeV
28S 28.00437(17) 125(10) ms 0+ 209.75 MeV
29S 28.99661(5) 187(4) ms 5/2+ 225.28 MeV
30S 29.984903(3) 1.178(5) s 0+ 244.53 MeV
31S 30.9795547(16) 2.572(13) s 1/2+ 257.25 MeV
32S 31.97207100(15) STABILNY 0+ 271.85 MeV
33S 32.97145876(15) STABILNY 3/2+ 280.85 MeV
34S 33.96786690(12) STABILNY 0+ 292.65 MeV
35S 34.96903216(11) 87.51(12) d 3/2+ 298.85 MeV
36S 35.96708076(20) STABILNY 0+ 308.79 MeV
37S 36.97112557(21) 5.05(2) min 7/2- 313.13 MeV
38S 37.971163(8) 170.3(7) min 0+ 321.21 MeV
39S 38.97513(5) 11.5(5) s (3/2,5/2,7/2)- 325.55 MeV
40S 39.97545(15) 8.8(22) s 0+ 333.62 MeV
41S 40.97958(13) 1.99(5) s (7/2-)# 337.97 MeV
42S 41.98102(13) 1.013(15) s 0+ 344.18 MeV
43S 42.98715(22) 260(15) ms 3/2-# 346.66 MeV
44S 43.99021(42) 100(1) ms 0+ 351.93 MeV
45S 44.99651(187) 68(2) ms 3/2-# 354.42 MeV
46S 46.00075(75)# 50(8) ms 0+ 358.76 MeV
47S 47.00859(86)# 20# ms [>200 ns] 3/2-# 359.38 MeV
48S 48.01417(97)# 10# ms [>200 ns] 0+ 361.86 MeV
49S 49.02362(102)# <200 ns 3/2-# 361.55 MeV
Wartości oznaczone # nie jest całkowicie pochodzą z danych doświadczalnych, ale przynajmniej częściowo z systematycznej tendencji. Obraca się słabe argumenty przypisania są w nawiasach. 13

reakcje

Obfitość

Ziemia - Związki źródłowe: uncombined 20
Ziemia - Woda morska: 905 mg/L 21
Ziemia -  Skorupa:  350 mg/kg = 0.035% 21
Ziemia -  Płaszcz:  >2% 22
Ziemia -  litosfery:  0.034% 23
Ziemia -  Całkowity:  2.92 % 24
Merkury) -  Całkowity:  0.24% 24
Wenus -  Całkowity:  1.62% 24
Wszechświat -  Całkowity:  0.04% 22
chondrytach - Całkowity: 1.1×105 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 25
Ludzkie ciało - Całkowity: 0.2% 26

związki

Informacje dotyczące bezpieczeństwa


Karta Charakterystyki - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Po więcej informacji

Linki zewnętrzne:

Czasopisma:
(1) D. W. Johnson, Biogeochemistry 1, 29-43 (1984)

źródła

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:30.
(2) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 952.
(3) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 305.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(6) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(13) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(14) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(15) - Halka, Monica and Nordstrom, Brian. Metals & Metalloids; Infobase Publishing: New York, NY, 2011; pg. 96.
(16) - Swaddle, T.W. Inorganic Chemistry; Academic Press: San Diego, 1997; p 279.
(17) - Kotz, John C., Treichel, Paul, and Weaver, Gabriela. Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity 6th ed.; Thomson Brooks/Cole: Belmont, CA, 2006; p 161.
(18) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 205.
(19) - Swaddle, T.W. Inorganic Chemistry; Academic Press: San Diego, 1997; p 360.
(20) - Atkins, Jones, and Laverman. Chemical Principles 6th ed.; W.H. Freeman and Company: New York, NY, 2013; p F94.
(21) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(22) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(23) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 962.
(24) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 964.
(25) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(26) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.
(27) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 7:17.