MANGAN

Wprowadzenie

Liczba atomowa: 25
Grupa: 7 or VII B
Masa atomowa: 54.938049
Okres: 4
Numer CAS: 7439-96-5

Klasyfikacja

tlenowce
Fluorowiec
Gaz szlachetny
lantanowców
Actinoid
Rare Earth Element
Platinum Grupa Metal
Transuran
Brak stabilnego Izotopy
Solidny
Ciekły
Gaz
Solidny (przewidywane)

Opis • Zastosowania / Funkcja

Recognized by Scheele, Bergman,and others as an element and isolated by Gahn in 1774 by reduction of the dioxide with carbon. Manganese minerals are widely distributed; oxides,silicates, and carbonates are the most common. The discovery of large quantities of manganese nodules on the floor of the oceans holds promise asa source of manganese. These nodules contain about 24% manganese together with many other elements in lesser abundance. Most manganese todayis obtained from ores found in the Ukraine, Brazil, Australia, Republic of South Africa, Gabon, China, and India. Pyrolusite (MnO2) and rhodochrosite(MnCO3) are among the most common manganese minerals. The metal is obtained by reduction of the oxide with sodium, magnesium, aluminum,or by electrolysis. It is gray-white, resembling iron, but is harder and very brittle. The metal is reactive chemically, and decomposes cold water slowly.Manganese is used to form many important alloys. In steel, manganese improves the rolling and forging qualities, strength, toughness, stiffness, wearresistance, hardness, and hardenability. With aluminum and antimony, especially with small amounts of copper, it forms highly ferromagnetic alloys.Manganese metal is ferromagnetic only after special treatment. The pure metal exists in four allotropic forms. The alpha form is stable at ordinarytemperature; gamma manganese, which changes to alpha at ordinary temperatures, is said to be flexible, soft, easily cut, and capable of being bent.The dioxide (pyrolusite) is used as a depolarizer in dry cells, and is used to “decolorize” glass that is colored green by impurities of iron. Manganeseby itself colors glass an amethyst color, and is responsible for the color of true amethyst. The dioxide is also used in the preparation of oxygen andchlorine, and in drying black paints. The permanganate is a powerful oxidizing agent and is used in quantitative analysis and in medicine. Manganeseis widely distributed throughout the animal kingdom. It is an important trace element and may be essential for utilization of vitamin B1. Twenty threeisotopes and isomers are known. Manganese metal (99.95%) is priced at about $400/kg. Metal of 99.6% purity is priced at about $60/kg. 1

• "like vanadium and chromium, is used mostly to make steel alloys." 2
• "...is an important element in steels that must withstand great shock, such as those used to construct rock crushers." 3
• "enzymes, bone…essential for enzymes in humans and other animals" 4
• "The metal is used in alloys with iron5

Właściwości fizyczne

Temperatura topnienia:6*  1246 °C = 1519.15 K = 2274.8 °F
Temperatura wrzenia:6* 2061 °C = 2334.15 K = 3741.8 °F
Punkt sublimacji:6 
Punkt potrójny:6 
Punkt krytyczny:6 
Gęstość:7  7.3 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Konfiguracja elektronów

Konfiguracja elektronów: [Ar] 4s2 3d5
Blok: d
Najwyższy poziom energii Zajęte: 4
Elektrony walencyjne: 

Liczby kwantowe:

n = 3
ℓ = 2
m = 2
ms = +½

klejenie

elektroujemność (Paulinga):8 1.55
Electropositivity (Paulinga): 2.45
powinowactwo elektronowe:9 not stable eV
utlenianie Zjednoczone: +2,3,4,6,7
Funkcja pracy:10 3.90 eV = 6.2478E-19 J

Potencjał jonizacyjny   eV 11  kJ/mol  
1 7.43402    717.3
2 15.63999    1509.0
3 33.668    3248.5
4 51.2    4940.0
5 72.4    6985.5
6 95.6    9224.0
7 119.203    11501.3
8 194.5    18766.4
Potencjał jonizacyjny   eV 11  kJ/mol  
9 221.8    21400.4
10 248.3    23957.3
11 286    27594.8
12 314.4    30335.0
13 343.6    33152.4
14 403    38883.6
15 435.163    41986.8
16 1134.7    109481.9
Potencjał jonizacyjny   eV 11  kJ/mol  
17 1224    118098.0
18 1317    127071.2
19 1437    138649.4
20 1539    148490.9
21 1644    158621.8
22 1788    172515.7
23 1879.9    181382.7
24 8140.6    785448.3
25 8571.94    827066.3

Termochemia

Ciepło właściwe: 0.479 J/g°C 12 = 26.315 J/mol°C = 0.114 cal/g°C = 6.290 cal/mol°C
Przewodność cieplna: 7.82 (W/m)/K, 27°C 13
Ciepło topnienia: 12.05 kJ/mol 14 = 219.3 J/g
Ciepło parowania: 266 kJ/mol 15 = 4841.8 J/g
Stan skupienia Entalpia formacji (ΔHf°)16 Entropia (S°)16 Gibbs Free Energy (ΔGf°)16
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s alpha) 0 0 7.65 32.0076 0 0
(s gamma) 0.37 1.54808 7.75 32.426 0.34 1.42256
(g) 67.1 280.7464 41.49 173.59416 57.0 238.488

izotopy

nuklidu Masa 17 Pół życia 17 spin jądrowy 17 Energia wiązania
44Mn 44.00687(54)# <105 ns (2-)# 329.99 MeV
45Mn 44.99451(32)# <70 ns (7/2-)# 349.24 MeV
46Mn 45.98672(12)# 37(3) ms (4+) 364.76 MeV
47Mn 46.97610(17)# 100(50) ms 5/2-# 382.15 MeV
48Mn 47.96852(12) 158.1(22) ms 4+ 397.67 MeV
49Mn 48.959618(26) 382(7) ms 5/2- 414.13 MeV
50Mn 49.9542382(11) 283.29(8) ms 0+ 426.86 MeV
51Mn 50.9482108(11) 46.2(1) min 5/2- 440.52 MeV
52Mn 51.9455655(21) 5.591(3) d 6+ 451.38 MeV
53Mn 52.9412901(9) 3.74(4)E+6 a 7/2- 463.18 MeV
54Mn 53.9403589(14) 312.03(3) d 3+ 472.18 MeV
55Mn 54.9380451(7) STABILNY 5/2- 482.12 MeV
56Mn 55.9389049(7) 2.5789(1) h 3+ 490.19 MeV
57Mn 56.9382854(20) 85.4(18) s 5/2- 498.26 MeV
58Mn 57.93998(3) 3.0(1) s 1+ 505.40 MeV
59Mn 58.94044(3) 4.59(5) s (5/2)- 512.54 MeV
60Mn 59.94291(9) 51(6) s 0+ 518.75 MeV
61Mn 60.94465(24) 0.67(4) s (5/2)- 524.95 MeV
62Mn 61.94843(24) 671(5) ms (3+) 529.30 MeV
63Mn 62.95024(28) 275(4) ms 5/2-# 535.51 MeV
64Mn 63.95425(29) 88.8(25) ms (1+) 539.85 MeV
65Mn 64.95634(58) 92(1) ms 5/2-# 546.06 MeV
66Mn 65.96108(43)# 64.4(18) ms 549.48 MeV
67Mn 66.96414(54)# 45(3) ms 5/2-# 554.75 MeV
68Mn 67.96930(64)# 28(4) ms 558.17 MeV
69Mn 68.97284(86)# 14(4) ms 5/2-# 563.44 MeV
Wartości oznaczone # nie jest całkowicie pochodzą z danych doświadczalnych, ale przynajmniej częściowo z systematycznej tendencji. Obraca się słabe argumenty przypisania są w nawiasach. 17

reakcje

Obfitość

Ziemia - Związki źródłowe: oxides 19
Ziemia - Woda morska: 0.0002 mg/L 20
Ziemia -  Skorupa:  950 mg/kg = 0.095% 20
Ziemia -  litosfery:  0.11% 21
Ziemia -  Całkowity:  750 ppm 22
Merkury) -  Całkowity:  150 ppm 22
Wenus -  Całkowity:  460 ppm 22
chondrytach - Całkowity: 7400 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 23
Ludzkie ciało - Całkowity: 0.00002% 24

związki

ceny





Informacje dotyczące bezpieczeństwa


Karta Charakterystyki - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Po więcej informacji

Linki zewnętrzne:

źródła

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(2) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill: New York, 2006; p 1013.
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(17) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
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