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원자 번호: 69
그룹: 없음
원자 무게: 168.93421
기간: 6
CAS 번호: 7440-30-4

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기술 • 용도 / 기능

Discovered in 1879 by Cleve. Thulium occurs in small quantities along with other rare earths in a number of minerals. It is obtained commerciallyfrom monazite, which contains about 0.007% of the element. Thulium is the least abundant of the rare earth elements, but with new sources recentlydiscovered, it is now considered to be about as rare as silver, gold, or cadmium. Ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques have recently permittedmuch easier separation of the rare earths, with much lower costs. Only a few years ago, thulium metal was not obtainable at any cost; in 1996 the oxidecost $20/g. Thulium metal powder now costs $60/g (99.9%). Thulium can be isolated by reduction of the oxide with lanthanum metal or by calciumreduction of the anhydrous fluoride. The pure metal has a bright, silvery luster. It is reasonably stable in air, but the metal should be protected frommoisture in a closed container. The element is silver-gray, soft, malleable, and ductile, and can be cut with a knife. Thirty eight isotopes and isomersare known, with atomic masses ranging from 146 to 176. Natural thulium, which is 100% 169Tm, is stable. Because of the relatively high price of themetal, thulium has not yet found many practical applications. 169Tm bombarded in a nuclear reactor can be used as a radiation source in portable Xrayequipment. 171Tm is potentially useful as an energy source. Natural thulium also has possible use in ferrites (ceramic magnetic materials) usedin microwave equipment. As with other lanthanides, thulium has a low-to-moderate acute toxic rating. It should be handled with care. 1

물리적 특성

녹는 점:2*  1545 °C = 1818.15 K = 2813 °F
비점:2* 1950 °C = 2223.15 K = 3542 °F
승화 포인트:2 
트리플 포인트:2 
중요 포인트:2 
밀도:3  9.32 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

전자 구성

전자 구성:  *[Xe] 6s2 4f13
블록: f
최고 점유 에너지 레벨: 6
원자가 전자를: 2

양자 번호:

n = 4
ℓ = 3
m = 2
ms = -½

본딩

전기 음성도 (폴링 규모):4 1.25
Electropositivity (폴링 규모): 2.75

이온화 전위   eV 5  kJ/mol  
1 6.18431    596.7
이온화 전위   eV 5  kJ/mol  
2 12.05    1162.6
이온화 전위   eV 5  kJ/mol  
3 23.68    2284.8
4 42.7    4119.9

열화학

비열: 0.160 J/g°C 6 = 27.029 J/mol°C = 0.038 cal/g°C = 6.460 cal/mol°C
열 전도성: 16.8 (W/m)/K, 27°C 7
퓨전의 열: 16.84 kJ/mol 8 = 99.7 J/g
기화의 열: 191 kJ/mol 9 = 1130.6 J/g
물질의 상태 형성의 엔탈피 (ΔHf°)10 엔트로피 (S°)10 깁스 자유 에너지 (ΔGf°)10
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 17.69 74.01496 0 0
(g) 55.5 232.212 45.41 189.99544 47.2 197.4848

동위 원소

핵종 질량 11 하프 라이프 11 핵 스핀 11 에너지 바인딩
145Tm 144.97007(43)# 3.1(3) μs (11/2-) 1,144.30 MeV
146Tm 145.96643(43)# 240(30) ms (6-) 1,161.69 MeV
147Tm 146.96096(32)# 0.58(3) s 11/2- 1,169.76 MeV
148Tm 147.95784(43)# 0.7(2) s (10+) 1,187.15 MeV
149Tm 148.95272(32)# 0.9(2) s (11/2-) 1,195.22 MeV
150Tm 149.94996(21)# 3# s (1+) 1,212.60 MeV
151Tm 150.945483(22) 4.17(10) s (11/2-) 1,220.67 MeV
152Tm 151.94442(8) 8.0(10) s (2#)- 1,228.75 MeV
153Tm 152.942012(20) 1.48(1) s (11/2-) 1,236.82 MeV
154Tm 153.941568(15) 8.1(3) s (2-) 1,244.89 MeV
155Tm 154.939199(14) 21.6(2) s (11/2-) 1,262.27 MeV
156Tm 155.938980(17) 83.8(18) s 2- 1,270.35 MeV
157Tm 156.93697(3) 3.63(9) min 1/2+ 1,278.42 MeV
158Tm 157.936980(27) 3.98(6) min 2- 1,286.49 MeV
159Tm 158.93498(3) 9.13(16) min 5/2+ 1,294.56 MeV
160Tm 159.93526(4) 9.4(3) min 1- 1,302.63 MeV
161Tm 160.93355(3) 30.2(8) min 7/2+ 1,310.70 MeV
162Tm 161.933995(28) 21.70(19) min 1- 1,318.77 MeV
163Tm 162.932651(6) 1.810(5) h 1/2+ 1,326.85 MeV
164Tm 163.93356(3) 2.0(1) min 1+ 1,334.92 MeV
165Tm 164.932435(4) 30.06(3) h 1/2+ 1,342.99 MeV
166Tm 165.933554(13) 7.70(3) h 2+ 1,351.06 MeV
167Tm 166.9328516(29) 9.25(2) d 1/2+ 1,359.13 MeV
168Tm 167.934173(3) 93.1(2) d 3+ 1,367.20 MeV
169Tm 168.9342133(27) 안정된 1/2+ 1,375.27 MeV
170Tm 169.9358014(27) 128.6(3) d 1- 1,383.34 MeV
171Tm 170.9364294(28) 1.92(1) a 1/2+ 1,391.42 MeV
172Tm 171.938400(6) 63.6(2) h 2- 1,399.49 MeV
173Tm 172.939604(5) 8.24(8) h (1/2+) 1,407.56 MeV
174Tm 173.94217(5) 5.4(1) min (4)- 1,406.31 MeV
175Tm 174.94384(5) 15.2(5) min (1/2+) 1,414.39 MeV
176Tm 175.94699(11) 1.85(3) min (4+) 1,422.46 MeV
177Tm 176.94904(32)# 90(6) s (7/2-) 1,430.53 MeV
178Tm 177.95264(43)# 30# s 1,429.29 MeV
179Tm 178.95534(54)# 20# s 1/2+# 1,437.36 MeV
값은 # 순수 실험 데이터에서 유래하지만, 적어도 부분적으로 체계적인 동향에서되지 않습니다 표시. 약한 할당 인수는 괄호로 묶와 함께 회전합니다. 11

풍부

지구 - 소스 화합물: phosphates 12
지구 - 해수: 0.00000017 mg/L 13
지구 -  빵 껍질:  0.52 mg/kg = 0.000052% 13
지구 -  합계:  35 ppb 14
수성 (행성) -  합계:  27 ppb 14
금성 -  합계:  37 ppb 14
구립 운석 - 합계: 0.031 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 15

화합물

안전 정보


물질 안전 보건 자료 - ACI Alloys, Inc.

자세한 내용은

외부 링크:

잡지:
(1) Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, pp 136-145.

소스

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:32.
(2) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(4) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(10) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(11) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(12) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(14) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(15) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.