사마륨

소개

원자 번호: 62
그룹: 없음
원자 무게: 150.36
기간: 6
CAS 번호: 7440-19-9

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고체 (예상)

기술 • 용도 / 기능

Discovered spectroscopically by its sharp absorption lines in 1879 by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in the mineral samarskite, named in honor of a Russianmine official, Col. Samarski. Samarium is found along with other members of the rare-earth elements in many minerals, including monazite andbastnasite, which are commercial sources. It occurs in monazite to the extent of 2.8%. While misch metal containing about 1% of samarium metal,has long been used, samarium has not been isolated in relatively pure form until recent years. Ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques haverecently simplified separation of the rare earths from one another; more recently, electrochemical deposition, using an electrolytic solution of lithiumcitrate and a mercury electrode, is said to be a simple, fast, and highly specific way to separate the rare earths. Samarium metal can be produced byreducing the oxide with barium or lanthanum. Samarium has a bright silver luster and is reasonably stable in air. Three crystal modifications of themetal exist, with transformations at 734 and 922°C. The metal ignites in air at about 150°C. Thirty two isotopes and isomers of samarium are nowrecognized. Natural samarium is a mixture of seven isotopes, three of which are unstable but have long half-lives. Samarium, along with other rareearths, is used for carbon-arc lighting for the motion picture industry. The sulfide has excellent high-temperature stability and good thermoelectricefficiencies up to 1100°C. SmCo5 has been used in making a new permanent magnet material with the highest resistance to demagnetization of anyknown material. It is said to have an intrinsic coercive force as high as 2200 kA/m. Samarium oxide has been used in optical glass to absorb the infrared.Samarium is used to dope calcium fluoride crystals for use in optical masers or lasers. Compounds of the metal act as sensitizers for phosphors excitedin the infrared; the oxide exhibits catalytic properties in the dehydration and dehydrogenation of ethyl alcohol. It is used in infrared absorbing glassand as a neutron absorber in nuclear reactors. The metal is priced at about $2/g (99.9%). Little is known of the toxicity of samarium; therefore, it shouldbe handled carefully. 1

• "Samarium magnets, which can withstand intense heat, help control Predator drones and Tomahawk cruise missiles." 2

물리적 특성

녹는 점:3*  1074 °C = 1347.15 K = 1965.2 °F
비점:3* 1794 °C = 2067.15 K = 3261.2 °F
승화 포인트:3 
트리플 포인트:3 
중요 포인트:3 
밀도:4  7.52 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

전자 구성

전자 구성:  *[Xe] 6s2 4f6
블록: f
최고 점유 에너지 레벨: 6
원자가 전자를: 2

양자 번호:

n = 4
ℓ = 3
m = 2
ms = +½

본딩

전기 음성도 (폴링 규모):5 1.17
Electropositivity (폴링 규모): 2.83
작업 기능:6 2.95 eV = 4.7259E-19 J

이온화 전위   eV 7  kJ/mol  
1 5.6436    544.5
이온화 전위   eV 7  kJ/mol  
2 11.07    1068.1
이온화 전위   eV 7  kJ/mol  
3 23.4    2257.8
4 41.4    3994.5

열화학

비열: 0.197 J/g°C 8 = 29.621 J/mol°C = 0.047 cal/g°C = 7.080 cal/mol°C
열 전도성: 13.3 (W/m)/K, 27°C 9
퓨전의 열: 8.63 kJ/mol 10 = 57.4 J/g
기화의 열: 166.4 kJ/mol 11 = 1106.7 J/g
물질의 상태 형성의 엔탈피 (ΔHf°)12 엔트로피 (S°)12 깁스 자유 에너지 (ΔGf°)12
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 16.63 69.57992 0 0
(g) 49.4 206.6896 43.72 182.92448 41.3 172.7992

동위 원소

핵종 질량 13 하프 라이프 13 핵 스핀 13 에너지 바인딩
128Sm 127.95808(54)# 0.5# s 0+ 1,031.20 MeV
129Sm 128.95464(54)# 550(100) ms 5/2+# 1,039.27 MeV
130Sm 129.94892(43)# 1# s 0+ 1,056.65 MeV
131Sm 130.94611(32)# 1.2(2) s 5/2+# 1,064.72 MeV
132Sm 131.94069(32)# 4.0(3) s 0+ 1,072.80 MeV
133Sm 132.93867(21)# 2.90(17) s (5/2+) 1,090.18 MeV
134Sm 133.93397(21)# 10(1) s 0+ 1,098.25 MeV
135Sm 134.93252(17) 10.3(5) s (7/2+) 1,106.33 MeV
136Sm 135.928276(13) 47(2) s 0+ 1,123.71 MeV
137Sm 136.92697(5) 45(1) s (9/2-) 1,131.78 MeV
138Sm 137.923244(13) 3.1(2) min 0+ 1,139.85 MeV
139Sm 138.922297(12) 2.57(10) min 1/2+ 1,147.93 MeV
140Sm 139.918995(13) 14.82(12) min 0+ 1,165.31 MeV
141Sm 140.918476(9) 10.2(2) min 1/2+ 1,173.38 MeV
142Sm 141.915198(6) 72.49(5) min 0+ 1,181.45 MeV
143Sm 142.914628(4) 8.75(8) min 3/2+ 1,189.53 MeV
144Sm 143.911999(3) 안정된 0+ 1,197.60 MeV
145Sm 144.913410(3) 340(3) d 7/2- 1,205.67 MeV
146Sm 145.913041(4) 1.03(5)E+8 a 0+ 1,213.74 MeV
147Sm 146.9148979(26) 1.06(2)E+11 a 7/2- 1,221.81 MeV
148Sm 147.9148227(26) 7(3)E+15 a 0+ 1,229.88 MeV
149Sm 148.9171847(26) 안정된 7/2- 1,237.95 MeV
150Sm 149.9172755(26) 안정된 0+ 1,246.02 MeV
151Sm 150.9199324(26) 90(8) a 5/2- 1,254.10 MeV
152Sm 151.9197324(27) 안정된 0+ 1,262.17 MeV
153Sm 152.9220974(27) 46.284(4) h 3/2+ 1,260.92 MeV
154Sm 153.9222093(27) 안정된 0+ 1,269.00 MeV
155Sm 154.9246402(28) 22.3(2) min 3/2- 1,277.07 MeV
156Sm 155.925528(10) 9.4(2) h 0+ 1,285.14 MeV
157Sm 156.92836(5) 8.03(7) min (3/2-) 1,293.21 MeV
158Sm 157.92999(8) 5.30(3) min 0+ 1,301.28 MeV
159Sm 158.93321(11) 11.37(15) s 5/2- 1,300.04 MeV
160Sm 159.93514(21)# 9.6(3) s 0+ 1,308.11 MeV
161Sm 160.93883(32)# 4.8(8) s 7/2+# 1,316.18 MeV
162Sm 161.94122(54)# 2.4(5) s 0+ 1,314.94 MeV
163Sm 162.94536(75)# 1# s 1/2-# 1,323.01 MeV
164Sm 163.94828(86)# 500# ms 0+ 1,331.08 MeV
165Sm 164.95298(97)# 200# ms 5/2-# 1,329.83 MeV
값은 # 순수 실험 데이터에서 유래하지만, 적어도 부분적으로 체계적인 동향에서되지 않습니다 표시. 약한 할당 인수는 괄호로 묶와 함께 회전합니다. 13

풍부

지구 - 소스 화합물: phosphates 14
지구 - 해수: 0.00000045 mg/L 15
지구 -  빵 껍질:  7.05 mg/kg = 0.000705% 15
지구 -  합계:  208 ppb 16
수성 (행성) -  합계:  160 ppb 16
금성 -  합계:  218 ppb 16
구립 운석 - 합계: 0.23 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 17

화합물

안전 정보


물질 안전 보건 자료 - ACI Alloys, Inc.

자세한 내용은

외부 링크:

잡지:
(1) Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, pp 136-145.

소스

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:27.
(2) - Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, p 140.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(5) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(6) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(12) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(13) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(14) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(15) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(16) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(17) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.