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소개

원자 번호: 45
그룹: 9 or VIII B
원자 무게: 102.9055
기간: 5
CAS 번호: 7440-16-6

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더 안정 동위 원소 없습니다
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고체 (예상)

기술 • 용도 / 기능

Wollaston discovered rhodium in 1803-4 in crude platinum ore he presumably obtained from South America. Rhodium occurs native withother platinum metals in river sands of the Urals and in North and South America. It is also found with other platinum metals in the copper-nickel sulfideores of the Sudbury, Ontario region. Although the quantity occurring here is very small, the large tonnages of nickel processed make the recoverycommercially feasible. The annual world production of rhodium is only 7 or 8 tons. The metal is silvery white and at red heat slowly changes in airto the sesquioxide. At higher temperatures it converts back to the element. Rhodium has a higher melting point and lower density than platinum. Itsmajor use is as an alloying agent to harden platinum and palladium. Such alloys are used for furnace windings, thermocouple elements, bushings forglass fiber production, electrodes for aircraft spark plugs, and laboratory crucibles. It is useful as an electrical contact material as it has a low electricalresistance, a low and stable contact resistance, and is highly resistant to corrosion. Plated rhodium, produced by electroplating or evaporation, isexceptionally hard and is used for optical instruments. It has a high reflectance and is hard and durable. Rhodium is also used for jewelry, for decoration,and as a catalyst. Forty four isotopes and isomers are now known. Soluble salts should not exceed 0.01 mg/m^3. Rhodium metal (powder) costs about$300/g (99.9% pure). 1

• "An exceedingly thin coating of rhodium is used to give rhodium finish, a warm satiny luster, feebly pink, to jewelry." 2

물리적 특성

녹는 점:3*  1964 °C = 2237.15 K = 3567.2 °F
비점:3* 3695 °C = 3968.15 K = 6683 °F
승화 포인트:3 
트리플 포인트:3 
중요 포인트:3 
밀도:4  12.4 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

전자 구성

전자 구성:  *[Kr] 5s1 4d8
블록: d
최고 점유 에너지 레벨: 5
원자가 전자를: 

양자 번호:

n = 4
ℓ = 2
m = 0
ms = -½

본딩

전기 음성도 (폴링 규모):5 2.28
Electropositivity (폴링 규모): 1.72
전자 친화도:6 1.137 eV
산화 미국: +3,4,6
작업 기능:7 4.98 eV = 7.97796E-19 J

이온화 전위   eV 8  kJ/mol  
1 7.4589    719.7
이온화 전위   eV 8  kJ/mol  
2 18.08    1744.5
이온화 전위   eV 8  kJ/mol  
3 31.06    2996.8

열화학

비열: 0.243 J/g°C 9 = 25.006 J/mol°C = 0.058 cal/g°C = 5.977 cal/mol°C
열 전도성: 150 (W/m)/K, 27°C 10
퓨전의 열: 21.5 kJ/mol 11 = 208.9 J/g
기화의 열: 493 kJ/mol 12 = 4790.8 J/g
물질의 상태 형성의 엔탈피 (ΔHf°)13 엔트로피 (S°)13 깁스 자유 에너지 (ΔGf°)13
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 7.56 31.63104 0 0
(g) 133.1 556.8904 44.383 185.698472 122.1 510.8664

동위 원소

핵종 질량 14 하프 라이프 14 핵 스핀 14 에너지 바인딩
100Rh 99.908122(20) 20.8(1) h 1- 857.62 MeV
101Rh 100.906164(18) 3.3(3) a 1/2- 873.15 MeV
102Rh 101.906843(5) 207.0(15) d (1-,2-) 881.22 MeV
103Rh 102.905504(3) 안정된 1/2- 889.29 MeV
104Rh 103.906656(3) 42.3(4) s 1+ 897.36 MeV
105Rh 104.905694(4) 35.36(6) h 7/2+ 905.43 MeV
106Rh 105.907287(8) 29.80(8) s 1+ 913.50 MeV
107Rh 106.906748(13) 21.7(4) min 7/2+ 921.57 MeV
108Rh 107.90873(11) 16.8(5) s 1+ 929.64 MeV
109Rh 108.908737(13) 80(2) s 7/2+ 937.72 MeV
110Rh 109.91114(5) 28.5(15) s (>3)(+#) 936.47 MeV
111Rh 110.91159(3) 11(1) s (7/2+) 944.54 MeV
112Rh 111.91439(6) 3.45(37) s 1+ 952.62 MeV
113Rh 112.91553(5) 2.80(12) s (7/2+) 960.69 MeV
114Rh 113.91881(12) 1.85(5) s 1+ 968.76 MeV
115Rh 114.92033(9) 0.99(5) s (7/2+)# 967.51 MeV
116Rh 115.92406(15) 0.68(6) s 1+ 975.59 MeV
117Rh 116.92598(54)# 0.44(4) s (7/2+)# 983.66 MeV
118Rh 117.93007(54)# 310(30) ms (4-10)(+#) 982.41 MeV
119Rh 118.93211(64)# 300# ms [>300 ns] 7/2+# 990.48 MeV
120Rh 119.93641(64)# 200# ms [>300 ns] 998.56 MeV
121Rh 120.93872(97)# 100# ms [>300 ns] 7/2+# 1,006.63 MeV
122Rh 121.94321(75)# 50# ms [>300 ns] 1,005.38 MeV
89Rh 88.94884(48)# 10# ms [>1.5 μs] 7/2+# 731.58 MeV
90Rh 89.94287(54)# 15(7) ms [12(+9-4) ms] 0+# 745.24 MeV
91Rh 90.93655(43)# 1.74(14) s 7/2+# 758.90 MeV
92Rh 91.93198(43)# 4.3(13) s (6+) 771.63 MeV
93Rh 92.92574(43)# 11.9(7) s 9/2+# 785.29 MeV
94Rh 93.92170(48)# 70.6(6) s (2+,4+) 797.08 MeV
95Rh 94.91590(16) 5.02(10) min (9/2)+ 810.75 MeV
96Rh 95.914461(14) 9.90(10) min (6+) 819.75 MeV
97Rh 96.91134(4) 30.7(6) min 9/2+ 830.61 MeV
98Rh 97.910708(13) 8.72(12) min (2)+ 839.62 MeV
99Rh 98.908132(8) 16.1(2) d 1/2- 849.55 MeV
값은 # 순수 실험 데이터에서 유래하지만, 적어도 부분적으로 체계적인 동향에서되지 않습니다 표시. 약한 할당 인수는 괄호로 묶와 함께 회전합니다. 14

풍부

지구 -  빵 껍질:  0.001 mg/kg = 0.0000001% 15
지구 -  합계:  252 ppb 16
수성 (행성) -  합계:  194 ppb 16
금성 -  합계:  265 ppb 16
구립 운석 - 합계: 0.25 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 17

화합물

안전 정보


물질 안전 보건 자료 - ACI Alloys, Inc.

자세한 내용은

외부 링크:

소스

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:26.
(2) - Brownlee, Raymond B., Fuller, Robert W., and Whitsit, Jesse E. Elements of Chemistry; Allyn and Bacon: Boston, Massachusetts, 1959; p 545.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(5) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(7) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(13) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(14) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(15) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(16) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(17) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.