프라세오디뮴

소개

원자 번호: 59
그룹: 없음
원자 무게: 140.90765
기간: 6
CAS 번호: 7440-10-0

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금속 비슷한
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알칼리 토 금속
전이 금속
칼 코겐
할로겐
노블 가스
란타 노이드
악티 노이드
희토류 원소
백금 그룹 금속
초 우라늄
더 안정 동위 원소 없습니다
고체
액체
가스
고체 (예상)

기술 • 용도 / 기능

In 1841 Mosander extracted the rare earth didymia from lanthana; in 1879, Lecoq de Boisbaudran isolated a new earth, samaria, from didymiaobtained from the mineral samarskite. Six years later, in 1885, von Welsbach separated didymia into two others, praseodymia and neodymia, whichgave salts of different colors. As with other rare earths, compounds of these elements in solution have distinctive sharp spectral absorption bands orlines, some of which are only a few Angstroms wide. The element occurs along with other rare-earth elements in a variety of minerals. Monazite andbastnasite are the two principal commercial sources of the rare-earth metals. Ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques have led to much easierisolation of the rare earths and the cost has dropped greatly in the past few years. Thirty six isotopes and isomers are now recognized. Praseodymiumcan be prepared by several methods, such as by calcium reduction of the anhydrous chloride of fluoride. Misch metal, used in making cigarette lighters,contains about 5% praseodymium metal. Praseodymium is soft, silvery, malleable, and ductile. It was prepared in relatively pure form in 1931. It issomewhat more resistant to corrosion in air than europium, lanthanum, cerium, or neodymium, but it does develop a green oxide coating that spallsoff when exposed to air. As with other rare-earth metals it should be kept under a light mineral oil or sealed in plastic. The rare-earth oxides, includingPr2O3, are among the most refractory substances known. Along with other rare earths, it is widely used as a core material for carbon arcs used by themotion picture industry for studio lighting and projection. Salts of praseodymium are used to color glasses and enamels; when mixed with certain othermaterials, praseodymium produces an intense and unusually clean yellow color in glass. Didymium glass, of which praseodymium is a component,is a colorant for welder’s goggles. The metal (99.9% pure) is priced at about $2/g. 1

• "tint[s] sunglasses." 2

물리적 특성

녹는 점:3*  931 °C = 1204.15 K = 1707.8 °F
비점:3* 3520 °C = 3793.15 K = 6368 °F
승화 포인트:3 
트리플 포인트:3 
중요 포인트:3 
밀도:4  6.77 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

전자 구성

전자 구성:  *[Xe] 6s2 4f3
블록: f
최고 점유 에너지 레벨: 6
원자가 전자를: 2

양자 번호:

n = 4
ℓ = 3
m = -1
ms = +½

본딩

전기 음성도 (폴링 규모):5 1.13
Electropositivity (폴링 규모): 2.87
작업 기능:6 2.7 eV = 4.3254E-19 J

이온화 전위   eV 7  kJ/mol  
1 5.473    528.1
이온화 전위   eV 7  kJ/mol  
2 10.55    1017.9
3 21.624    2086.4
이온화 전위   eV 7  kJ/mol  
4 38.98    3761.0
5 57.53    5550.8

열화학

비열: 0.193 J/g°C 8 = 27.195 J/mol°C = 0.046 cal/g°C = 6.500 cal/mol°C
열 전도성: 12.5 (W/m)/K, 27°C 9
퓨전의 열: 6.89 kJ/mol 10 = 48.9 J/g
기화의 열: 296.8 kJ/mol 11 = 2106.3 J/g
물질의 상태 형성의 엔탈피 (ΔHf°)12 엔트로피 (S°)12 깁스 자유 에너지 (ΔGf°)12
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 17.5 73.22 0 0
(g) 85.0 355.64 45.34 189.70256 76.7 320.9128

동위 원소

핵종 질량 13 하프 라이프 13 핵 스핀 13 에너지 바인딩
121Pr 120.95536(75)# 600(300) ms (3/2-) 977.04 MeV
122Pr 121.95181(54)# 500# ms 985.12 MeV
123Pr 122.94596(64)# 800# ms 3/2+# 1,002.50 MeV
124Pr 123.94296(64)# 1.2(2) s 1,010.57 MeV
125Pr 124.93783(43)# 3.3(7) s 3/2+# 1,027.96 MeV
126Pr 125.93531(21)# 3.12(18) s (4,5,6) 1,036.03 MeV
127Pr 126.93083(21)# 4.2(3) s 3/2+# 1,044.10 MeV
128Pr 127.92879(3) 2.84(9) s (3+) 1,061.49 MeV
129Pr 128.92510(3) 32(3) s (11/2-) 1,069.56 MeV
130Pr 129.92359(7) 40.0(4) s (6,7)(+#) 1,077.63 MeV
131Pr 130.92026(6) 1.50(3) min (3/2+) 1,085.70 MeV
132Pr 131.91926(6) 1.49(11) min (2+) 1,103.09 MeV
133Pr 132.916331(13) 6.5(3) min (3/2+) 1,111.16 MeV
134Pr 133.91571(4) ~11 min (5-) 1,119.23 MeV
135Pr 134.913112(13) 24(2) min 3/2(+) 1,127.30 MeV
136Pr 135.912692(13) 13.1(1) min 2+ 1,135.37 MeV
137Pr 136.910705(13) 1.28(3) h 5/2+ 1,143.44 MeV
138Pr 137.910755(15) 1.45(5) min 1+ 1,151.52 MeV
139Pr 138.908938(8) 4.41(4) h 5/2+ 1,168.90 MeV
140Pr 139.909076(7) 3.39(1) min 1+ 1,176.97 MeV
141Pr 140.9076528(26) 안정된 5/2+ 1,185.04 MeV
142Pr 141.9100448(26) 19.12(4) h 2- 1,183.80 MeV
143Pr 142.9108169(28) 13.57(2) d 7/2+ 1,191.87 MeV
144Pr 143.913305(4) 17.28(5) min 0- 1,199.94 MeV
145Pr 144.914512(8) 5.984(10) h 7/2+ 1,208.02 MeV
146Pr 145.91764(7) 24.15(18) min (2)- 1,216.09 MeV
147Pr 146.918996(25) 13.4(4) min (3/2+) 1,224.16 MeV
148Pr 147.922135(28) 2.29(2) min 1- 1,222.91 MeV
149Pr 148.92372(9) 2.26(7) min (5/2+) 1,230.99 MeV
150Pr 149.926673(28) 6.19(16) s (1)- 1,239.06 MeV
151Pr 150.928319(25) 18.90(7) s (3/2)(-#) 1,247.13 MeV
152Pr 151.93150(13) 3.63(12) s 4+ 1,245.88 MeV
153Pr 152.93384(11) 4.28(11) s 5/2-# 1,253.96 MeV
154Pr 153.93752(16) 2.3(1) s (3+,2+) 1,262.03 MeV
155Pr 154.94012(32)# 1# s [>300 ns] 5/2-# 1,260.78 MeV
156Pr 155.94427(43)# 500# ms [>300 ns] 1,268.85 MeV
157Pr 156.94743(43)# 300# ms 5/2-# 1,276.93 MeV
158Pr 157.95198(64)# 200# ms 1,275.68 MeV
159Pr 158.95550(75)# 100# ms 5/2-# 1,283.75 MeV
값은 # 순수 실험 데이터에서 유래하지만, 적어도 부분적으로 체계적인 동향에서되지 않습니다 표시. 약한 할당 인수는 괄호로 묶와 함께 회전합니다. 13

풍부

지구 - 소스 화합물: phosphates 14
지구 - 해수: 0.00000064 mg/L 15
지구 -  빵 껍질:  9.2 mg/kg = 0.00092% 15
지구 -  합계:  129 ppb 16
수성 (행성) -  합계:  99 ppb 16
금성 -  합계:  135 ppb 16
구립 운석 - 합계: 0.14 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 17

화합물

안전 정보


물질 안전 보건 자료 - ACI Alloys, Inc.

자세한 내용은

외부 링크:

잡지:
(1) Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, pp 136-145.

소스

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:24.
(2) - Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, p 140.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(5) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(6) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(12) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(13) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(14) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(15) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(16) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(17) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.