리드

소개

원자 번호: 82
그룹: 14 or IV A
원자 무게: 207.2
기간: 6
CAS 번호: 7439-92-1

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기술 • 용도 / 기능

Long known, mentioned in Exodus. The alchemists believed lead to be the oldest metal and associated it with the planet Saturn. Native lead occurs in nature,but it is rare. Lead is obtained chiefly from galena (PbS) by a roasting process. Anglesite (PbSO4), cerussite (PbCO3), and minim (Pb3O4) are othercommon lead minerals. Lead is a bluish-white metal of bright luster, is very soft, highly malleable, ductile, and a poor conductor of electricity. It is very resistant to corrosion; lead pipes bearing the insignia of Roman emperors, used as drains from the baths, are still in service. It is used in containersfor corrosive liquids (such as sulfuric acid) and may be toughened by the addition of a small percentage of antimony or other metals. Natural lead isa mixture of four stable isotopes: lead-204 (1.4%), lead-206 (24.1%), lead-207 (22.1%), and lead-208 (52.4%). Lead isotopes are the end products of each of thethree series of naturally occurring radioactive elements: lead-206 for the uranium series, lead-207 for the actinium series, and lead-208 for the thorium series.Forty other isotopes of lead, all of which are radioactive, are recognized. Its alloys include solder, type metal, and various antifriction metals. Greatquantities of lead, both as the metal and as the dioxide, are used in storage batteries. Much metal also goes into cable covering, plumbing, ammunition,and in the manufacture of lead tetraethyl. The metal is very effective as a sound absorber, is used as a radiation shield around X-ray equipment andnuclear reactors, and is used to absorb vibration. White lead, the basic carbonate, sublimed white lead (PbSO4) chrome yellow (PbCrO4), red lead(Pb3O4), and other lead compounds are used extensively in paints, although in recent years the use of lead in paints has been drastically curtailed toeliminate or reduce health hazards. Lead oxide is used in producing fine “crystal glass” and “flint glass” of a high index of refraction for achromaticlenses. The nitrate and the acetate are soluble salts. Lead salts such as lead arsenate have been used as insecticides, but their use in recent years hasbeen practically eliminated in favor of less harmful organic compounds. Care must be used in handling lead as it is a cumulative poison. Environmentalconcern with lead poisoning has resulted in a national program to eliminate the lead in gasoline. Lead is priced at about $1/kg (99.9%). 1

• "may have been the first pure metal obtained from its ore" 2
• "used as early as 3000 B.C. by the Egyptians and was later used by Romans to make eating utensils, glazes on pottery, and even intricate plumbing systems." 3
• "the widespread use of tetraethyl lead (C2H5)4Pb, as an antinknock agent in gasoline has increased the lead levels in our environment in this century." 4
• "The largest major commercial use of lead (about 1.3 million tons annually) is for electrodes in the lead storage batteries used in automobiles." 5
• "Once used as a gasoline additive to improve fuel efficiency, but now banned because of its inactivation of auto catalytic converters. Major source of lead as a toxic air pollutant." 6
• "If a piece of lead is scraped clean and immediately placed in sulfuric acid, it will be attacked and hydrogen will be set free. In a few moments the bright surface becomes covered with lead sulfate and the action ceases. Hence lead is used for containers of sulfuric acid and in storage batteries containing the acid. The resistance of lead to the action of the acid is due in large part to the dense, insoluble, adherent coating of lead sulfate formed on the surface by the immediate attack of the acid. This sulfate forms on storage battery plates during the discharge of the battery and is reduced to lead peroxide and lead when the battery is again charged...

Lead is fairly cheap, is easily worked, and is durable, so that it is one of our most common and most useful metals. Its density is sometimes an advantage, as in shielding atomic piles against the escape of dangerous radiation. Lead is very extensively used for pipes and as a sheathing for cables, since it is easily cut, bent, and soldered. Lead pipe is now made by forcing the hot lead through a die by means of the piston of a hydraulic press. The opening of the die is partly obstructed by a solid cylindrical rod attached to the upper surface of the piston. This rod moces upward with the piston, and the pipe is formed by the lead being squeezed out between the rod and the wall of the die. Lead may be extruded in any shape for which a die can be cut.

As it withstands ordinary atmospheric conditions, sheet lead was formerly used for roof covering. It is very widely used as a lining for tanks, cisterns, and cells used in electrolytic operations. The Chinese have long used it for lining tea chests. Thin sheet lead, alloyed with tin, is often used instead of pure tin foil for protective coverings." 7
• "The early Romans used lead to make water pipes, and today many pipes (especially those used in the chemical industry) are still made of lead. The word plumbing derives from the Latin word plumbum for "lead."

Lead remains one of the most useful metals and is fifth in order by tons produced. It is used to make storage battery plates, tetraethyllead for gasoline antiknock compounds, paint pigments, and ammunition. The use of tetraethyllead in gasoline and the use of lead compounds in paints are being phased out because of the metal's toxicity. Lead compounds poison by combining with enzymes (biological catalysts)." 8

물리적 특성

녹는 점:9*  327.46 °C = 600.61 K = 621.428 °F
비점:9* 1749 °C = 2022.15 K = 3180.2 °F
승화 포인트:9 
트리플 포인트:9 
중요 포인트:9 
밀도:10  11.3 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

전자 구성

전자 구성: [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p2
블록: p
최고 점유 에너지 레벨: 6
원자가 전자를: 4

양자 번호:

n = 6
ℓ = 1
m = 0
ms = +½

본딩

전기 음성도 (폴링 규모):11 1.8
Electropositivity (폴링 규모): 2.2
전자 친화도:12 0.364 eV
산화 미국: +2,4
작업 기능:13 4.18 eV = 6.69636E-19 J

이온화 전위   eV 14  kJ/mol  
1 7.41666    715.6
이온화 전위   eV 14  kJ/mol  
2 15.0322    1450.4
3 31.9373    3081.5
이온화 전위   eV 14  kJ/mol  
4 42.32    4083.3
5 68.8    6638.2

열화학

비열: 0.129 J/g°C 15 = 26.729 J/mol°C = 0.031 cal/g°C = 6.388 cal/mol°C
열 전도성: 35.3 (W/m)/K, 27°C 16
퓨전의 열: 4.799 kJ/mol 17 = 23.2 J/g
기화의 열: 177.7 kJ/mol 18 = 857.6 J/g
물질의 상태 형성의 엔탈피 (ΔHf°)19 엔트로피 (S°)19 깁스 자유 에너지 (ΔGf°)19
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 15.48 64.76832 0 0
(ℓ) 1.025 4.2886 17.14 71.71376 0.531 2.221704
(g) 46.75 195.602 41.89 175.26776 38.87 162.63208

동위 원소

핵종 질량 20 하프 라이프 20 핵 스핀 20 에너지 바인딩
178Pb 178.003830(26) 0.23(15) ms 0+ 1,372.54 MeV
179Pb 179.00215(21)# 3# ms 5/2-# 1,380.61 MeV
180Pb 179.997918(22) 4.5(11) ms 0+ 1,398.00 MeV
181Pb 180.99662(10) 45(20) ms 5/2-# 1,406.07 MeV
182Pb 181.992672(15) 60(40) ms [55(+40-35) ms] 0+ 1,414.14 MeV
183Pb 182.99187(3) 535(30) ms (3/2-) 1,422.21 MeV
184Pb 183.988142(15) 490(25) ms 0+ 1,439.60 MeV
185Pb 184.987610(17) 6.3(4) s 3/2- 1,447.67 MeV
186Pb 185.984239(12) 4.82(3) s 0+ 1,455.74 MeV
187Pb 186.983918(9) 15.2(3) s (3/2-) 1,463.81 MeV
188Pb 187.980874(11) 25.5(1) s 0+ 1,471.88 MeV
189Pb 188.98081(4) 51(3) s (3/2-) 1,479.95 MeV
190Pb 189.978082(13) 71(1) s 0+ 1,497.34 MeV
191Pb 190.97827(4) 1.33(8) min (3/2-) 1,505.41 MeV
192Pb 191.975785(14) 3.5(1) min 0+ 1,513.48 MeV
193Pb 192.97617(5) 5# min (3/2-) 1,521.55 MeV
194Pb 193.974012(19) 12.0(5) min 0+ 1,529.63 MeV
195Pb 194.974542(25) ~15 min 3/2#- 1,537.70 MeV
196Pb 195.972774(15) 37(3) min 0+ 1,545.77 MeV
197Pb 196.973431(6) 8.1(17) min 3/2- 1,553.84 MeV
198Pb 197.972034(16) 2.4(1) h 0+ 1,561.91 MeV
199Pb 198.972917(28) 90(10) min 3/2- 1,569.98 MeV
200Pb 199.971827(12) 21.5(4) h 0+ 1,578.05 MeV
201Pb 200.972885(24) 9.33(3) h 5/2- 1,586.12 MeV
202Pb 201.972159(9) 52.5(28)E+3 a 0+ 1,594.20 MeV
203Pb 202.973391(7) 51.873(9) h 5/2- 1,602.27 MeV
204Pb 203.9730436(13) 안정된 0+ 1,610.34 MeV
205Pb 204.9744818(13) 15.3(7)E+6 a 5/2- 1,618.41 MeV
206Pb 205.9744653(13) 안정된 0+ 1,626.48 MeV
207Pb 206.9758969(13) 안정된 1/2- 1,634.55 MeV
208Pb 207.9766521(13) 안정된 0+ 1,642.62 MeV
209Pb 208.9810901(19) 3.253(14) h 9/2+ 1,641.38 MeV
210Pb 209.9841885(16) 22.20(22) a 0+ 1,649.45 MeV
211Pb 210.9887370(29) 36.1(2) min 9/2+ 1,657.52 MeV
212Pb 211.9918975(24) 10.64(1) h 0+ 1,656.28 MeV
213Pb 212.996581(8) 10.2(3) min (9/2+) 1,664.35 MeV
214Pb 213.9998054(26) 26.8(9) min 0+ 1,672.42 MeV
215Pb 215.00481(44)# 36(1) s 5/2+# 1,671.18 MeV
값은 # 순수 실험 데이터에서 유래하지만, 적어도 부분적으로 체계적인 동향에서되지 않습니다 표시. 약한 할당 인수는 괄호로 묶와 함께 회전합니다. 20

반응

풍부

지구 - 소스 화합물: sulfides 22
지구 - 해수: 0.00003 mg/L 23
지구 -  빵 껍질:  0.14 mg/kg = 0.000014% 23
지구 -  합계:  1.58 ppb 24
수성 (행성) -  합계:  0.018 ppb 24
금성 -  합계:  1.66 ppb 24
구립 운석 - 합계: 0.14 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 25
인간의 몸 - 합계: 0.00017% 26

화합물

물가





안전 정보

NFPA 704 Ratings:
Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or moderate residual injury.
Flammability: 1 - Must be heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93°C (200°F).
Reactivity: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water.

물질 안전 보건 자료 - ACI Alloys, Inc.

자세한 내용은

외부 링크:

저널:
(1) Richard B. Holtzman and Frank H. Ilcewicz, Science 153, 1259-1260 (1966)
(2) Roberto Gwiazda, Carla Campbell, Donald Smith, Environ. Health Perspect. 113, 104-110 (2005)
(3) Ellen Tohn, Sherry Dixon, Ron Rupp and Scott Clark, Environ. Health Perspect. 108, 453-456 (2000)
(4) Robert A. Root, Environ. Health Perspect. 108, 937-940 (2000)
잡지:
(1) Hanson, David. Safety Law Confounds. Chemical & Engineering News, February 9, 2009, pp 28.

소스

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:17-4:18.
(2) - Zumdahl, Steven S. Chemistry, 4th ed.; Houghton Mifflin: Boston, 1997; p 890.
(3) - Zumdahl, Steven S. Chemistry, 4th ed.; Houghton Mifflin: Boston, 1997; p 890.
(4) - Zumdahl, Steven S. Chemistry, 4th ed.; Houghton Mifflin: Boston, 1997; p 890.
(5) - Zumdahl, Steven S. Chemistry, 4th ed.; Houghton Mifflin: Boston, 1997; p 890.
(6) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill: New York, 2006; p 575.
(7) - Brownlee, Raymond B., Fuller, Robert W., and Whitsit, Jesse E. Elements of Chemistry; Allyn and Bacon: Boston, Massachusetts, 1959; pp 554-5.
(8) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 703.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(11) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(13) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(14) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(15) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(16) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(17) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(18) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(19) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(20) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(21) - Swaddle, T.W. Inorganic Chemistry; Academic Press: San Diego, 1997; p 386.
(22) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(23) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(24) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(25) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.
(26) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 7:17.