오스뮴

소개

원자 번호: 76
그룹: 8 or VIII B
원자 무게: 190.23
기간: 6
CAS 번호: 7440-04-02

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기술 • 용도 / 기능

Discovered in 1803 by Tennant in the residue left when crude platinum is dissolved by aqua regia. Osmium occurs in iridosmine and in platinum-bearing river sands of the Urals, North America, and South America. It is also found in the nickel-bearing ores of Sudbury, Ontario, region along with other platinum metals. While the quantity of platinum metals in these ores is very small, the large tonnages of nickel ores processed make commercial recovery possible. The metal is lustrous, bluish white, extremely hard, and brittle even at high temperatures. It has the highest melting point and the lowest vapor pressure of the platinum group. The metal is very difficult to fabricate, but the powder can be sintered in a hydrogen atmosphere at a temperature of 2000°C. The solid metal is not affected by air at room temperature, but the powdered or spongy metal slowly gives off osmium tetroxide, which is a powerful oxidizing agent and has a strong smell. The tetroxide is highly toxic, and boils at 130°C (760 mm). Concentrations in air as low as 10^–7 g/m^3 can cause lung congestion, skin damage, or eye damage. The tetroxide has been used to detect fingerprints and to stain fatty tissue for microscope slides. The metal is almost entirely used to produce very hard alloys, with other metals of the platinum group, for fountain pen tips, instrument pivots, phonograph needles, and electrical contacts. The price of 99.9% pure osmium powder — the form usually supplied commercially — is about $100/g, depending on quantity and supplier. Natural osmium contains seven isotopes, one of which, 186Os, is radioactive with a very long half-life. Thirty four other isotopes and isomers are known, all of which are radioactive.The measured densities of iridium and osmium seem to indicate that osmium is slightly more dense than iridium, so osmium has generally been credited with being the heaviest known element. Calculations of the density from the space lattice, which may be more reliable for these elements than actual measurements, however, give a density of 22.65 for iridium compared to 22.61 for osmium. At present, therefore, we know either iridium or osmium is the heaviest element, but the data do not allow selection between the two. 1

물리적 특성

녹는 점:2*  3033 °C = 3306.15 K = 5491.4 °F
비점:2* 5012 °C = 5285.15 K = 9053.6 °F
승화 포인트:2 
트리플 포인트:2 
중요 포인트:2 
밀도:3  22.59 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

전자 구성

전자 구성: [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d6
블록: d
최고 점유 에너지 레벨: 6
원자가 전자를: 

양자 번호:

n = 5
ℓ = 2
m = -2
ms = -½

본딩

전기 음성도 (폴링 규모):4 2.2
Electropositivity (폴링 규모): 1.8
전자 친화도:5 1.1 eV
산화 미국: +4,6,8
작업 기능:6 4.83 eV = 7.73766E-19 J

이온화 전위   eV 7  kJ/mol  
이온화 전위   eV 7  kJ/mol  
이온화 전위   eV 7  kJ/mol  
1 8.4382    814.2

열화학

비열: 0.130 J/g°C 8 = 24.730 J/mol°C = 0.031 cal/g°C = 5.911 cal/mol°C
열 전도성: 87.6 (W/m)/K, 27°C 9
퓨전의 열: 31.8 kJ/mol 10 = 167.2 J/g
기화의 열: 746 kJ/mol 11 = 3921.6 J/g
물질의 상태 형성의 엔탈피 (ΔHf°)12 엔트로피 (S°)12 깁스 자유 에너지 (ΔGf°)12
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 7.8 32.6352 0 0
(g) 189 790.776 46.000 192.464 178 744.752

동위 원소

핵종 질량 13 하프 라이프 13 핵 스핀 13 에너지 바인딩
162Os 161.98443(54)# 1.87(18) ms 0+ 1,266.72 MeV
163Os 162.98269(43)# 5.5(6) ms 7/2-# 1,274.79 MeV
164Os 163.97804(22) 21(1) ms 0+ 1,292.18 MeV
165Os 164.97676(22)# 71(3) ms (7/2-) 1,300.25 MeV
166Os 165.972691(20) 216(9) ms 0+ 1,308.32 MeV
167Os 166.97155(8) 810(60) ms 3/2-# 1,316.39 MeV
168Os 167.967804(13) 2.06(6) s 0+ 1,333.78 MeV
169Os 168.967019(27) 3.40(9) s 3/2-# 1,341.85 MeV
170Os 169.963577(12) 7.46(23) s 0+ 1,349.92 MeV
171Os 170.963185(20) 8.3(2) s (5/2-) 1,357.99 MeV
172Os 171.960023(16) 19.2(5) s 0+ 1,366.07 MeV
173Os 172.959808(16) 22.4(9) s (5/2-) 1,383.45 MeV
174Os 173.957062(12) 44(4) s 0+ 1,391.52 MeV
175Os 174.956946(15) 1.4(1) min (5/2-) 1,399.59 MeV
176Os 175.95481(3) 3.6(5) min 0+ 1,407.67 MeV
177Os 176.954965(17) 3.0(2) min 1/2- 1,415.74 MeV
178Os 177.953251(18) 5.0(4) min 0+ 1,423.81 MeV
179Os 178.953816(19) 6.5(3) min (1/2-) 1,431.88 MeV
180Os 179.952379(22) 21.5(4) min 0+ 1,439.95 MeV
181Os 180.95324(3) 105(3) min 1/2- 1,448.02 MeV
182Os 181.952110(23) 22.10(25) h 0+ 1,456.09 MeV
183Os 182.95313(5) 13.0(5) h 9/2+ 1,464.17 MeV
184Os 183.9524891(14) 안정된 0+ 1,472.24 MeV
185Os 184.9540423(14) 93.6(5) d 1/2- 1,480.31 MeV
186Os 185.9538382(15) 2.0(11)E+15 a 0+ 1,488.38 MeV
187Os 186.9557505(15) 안정된 1/2- 1,496.45 MeV
188Os 187.9558382(15) 안정된 0+ 1,504.52 MeV
189Os 188.9581475(16) 안정된 3/2- 1,512.59 MeV
190Os 189.9584470(16) 안정된 0+ 1,520.66 MeV
191Os 190.9609297(16) 15.4(1) d 9/2- 1,519.42 MeV
192Os 191.9614807(27) 안정된 0+ 1,527.49 MeV
193Os 192.9641516(27) 30.11(1) h 3/2- 1,535.56 MeV
194Os 193.9651821(28) 6.0(2) a 0+ 1,543.63 MeV
195Os 194.96813(54) 6.5 min 3/2-# 1,551.71 MeV
196Os 195.96964(4) 34.9(2) min 0+ 1,559.78 MeV
197Os 2.8(6) min
값은 # 순수 실험 데이터에서 유래하지만, 적어도 부분적으로 체계적인 동향에서되지 않습니다 표시. 약한 할당 인수는 괄호로 묶와 함께 회전합니다. 13

풍부

지구 -  빵 껍질:  0.0015 mg/kg = 0.00000015% 14
지구 -  합계:  880 ppb 15
수성 (행성) -  합계:  670 ppb 15
금성 -  합계:  920 ppb 15
구립 운석 - 합계: 0.54 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 16

화합물

안전 정보


물질 안전 보건 자료 - ACI Alloys, Inc.

자세한 내용은

외부 링크:

소스

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:21.
(2) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(4) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(6) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(12) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(13) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(14) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(15) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(16) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.