노벨륨

소개

원자 번호: 102
그룹: 없음
원자 무게: 259
기간: 7
CAS 번호: 10028-14-5

분류

금속
비금속
금속 비슷한
알칼리 금속
알칼리 토 금속
전이 금속
칼 코겐
할로겐
노블 가스
란타 노이드
악티 노이드
희토류 원소
백금 그룹 금속
초 우라늄
더 안정 동위 원소 없습니다
고체
액체
가스
고체 (예상)

기술 • 용도 / 기능

Nobelium was unambiguously discovered and identified in April 1958 at Berkeley by A. Ghiorso, T. Sikkeland, J. R. Walton, and G. T. Seaborg, who used a new double-recoil technique. A heavy-ion linear accelerator (HILAC) was used to bombard a thin target of curium (95% curium-244 and 4.5% curium-246) with carbon-12 ions to produce Element 102-254 according to the curium-246 (carbon-12, 4 neutrons) reaction. Earlier in 1957 workers of the U.S., Britain, and Sweden announced the discovery of an isotope of Element 102 with a 10-min half-life at 8.5 MeV, as a result of bombarding curium-244 with carbon-13 nuclei. On the basis of this experiment the name nobelium was assigned and accepted by the Commission on Atomic Weights of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The acceptance of the name was premature, for both Russian and American efforts now completely rule out the possibility of any isotope of Element 102 having a half-life of 10 min in the vicinity of 8.5 MeV. Early work in 1957 on the search for this element, in Russia at the Kurchatov Institute, was marred by the assignment of 8.9 ± 0.4 MeV alpha radiation with a half-life of 2 to 40 sec, which was too indefinite to support claim to discovery. Confirmatory experiments at Berkeley in 1966 have shown the existence of Element 102-254 with a 55-s half-life, Element 102-252 with a 2.3-s half-life, and Element 102-257 with a 25-s half-life. Twelve isotopes are now recognized, one of which — Element 102-255 has a half-life of 3.1 min. In view of the discover’s traditional right to name an element, the Berkeley group, in 1967, suggested that the hastily given name nobelium, along with the symbol No, be retained. 1

물리적 특성

녹는 점:2*  827 °C = 1100.15 K = 1520.6 °F
비점:2
승화 포인트:2 
트리플 포인트:2 
중요 포인트:2 
밀도:   g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

전자 구성

전자 구성:  *[Rn] 7s2 5f14
블록: f
최고 점유 에너지 레벨: 7
원자가 전자를: 2

양자 번호:

n = 5
ℓ = 3
m = 3
ms = -½

본딩

이온화 전위   eV 3  kJ/mol  
이온화 전위   eV 3  kJ/mol  
이온화 전위   eV 3  kJ/mol  
1 6.65    641.6

열화학

비열: 
열 전도성: 10 (W/m)/K, 27°C 4
퓨전의 열: 
기화의 열: 
물질의 상태 형성의 엔탈피 (ΔHf°)5 엔트로피 (S°)5 깁스 자유 에너지 (ΔGf°)5
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(g) 21.57 90.24888 50.347 210.651848 20.69 86.56696

동위 원소

핵종 질량 6 하프 라이프 6 핵 스핀 6 에너지 바인딩
248No 248.08660(32)# <2 μs 0+ 1,847.36 MeV
249No 249.08783(37)# 57(12) μs [54(+15-10) μs] 5/2+# 1,855.44 MeV
250No 250.08751(22)# 5.7(8) μs 0+ 1,863.51 MeV
251No 251.08901(19)# 0.78(2) s 7/2+# 1,871.58 MeV
252No 252.088977(14) 2.27(14) s 0+ 1,879.65 MeV
253No 253.09068(11)# 1.62(15) min (9/2-)# 1,878.41 MeV
254No 254.090955(19) 51(10) s 0+ 1,886.48 MeV
255No 255.093241(11) 3.1(2) min (1/2+) 1,894.55 MeV
256No 256.094283(8) 2.91(5) s 0+ 1,902.62 MeV
257No 257.096877(23) 25(2) s (7/2+) 1,910.69 MeV
258No 258.09821(22)# 1.2(2) ms 0+ 1,918.76 MeV
259No 259.10103(11)# 58(5) min (9/2+)# 1,917.52 MeV
260No 260.10264(22)# 106(8) ms 0+ 1,925.59 MeV
261No 261.10575(32)# 3# h 3/2+# 1,933.66 MeV
262No 262.10730(48)# ~5 ms 0+ 1,941.73 MeV
263No 263.11055(53)# 20# min 1,940.49 MeV
264No 264.11235(69)# 1# min 0+ 1,948.56 MeV
값은 # 순수 실험 데이터에서 유래하지만, 적어도 부분적으로 체계적인 동향에서되지 않습니다 표시. 약한 할당 인수는 괄호로 묶와 함께 회전합니다. 6

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안전 정보


물질 안전 보건 자료 - ACI Alloys, Inc.

자세한 내용은

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소스

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:21.
(2) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(7) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(8) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
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(11) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 135.
(12) - Swaddle, T.W. Inorganic Chemistry; Academic Press: San Diego, 1997; p 360.
(13) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; pp 223-4, 302.
(14) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; pp 135, 138, 194, 210, 219, 222, 224, 227.
(15) - Kotz, John C., Treichel, Paul, and Weaver, Gabriela. Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity 6th ed.; Thomson Brooks/Cole: Belmont, CA, 2006; p 166.
(16) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; pp 219, 302.
(17) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 138.
(18) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; pp 211, 219.
(19) - Halka, Monica and Nordstrom, Brian. Metals & Metalloids; Infobase Publishing: New York, NY, 2011; pg. 49.