니켈

소개

원자 번호: 28
그룹: 10 or VIII B
원자 무게: 58.6934
기간: 4
CAS 번호: 7440-02-0

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더 안정 동위 원소 없습니다
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고체 (예상)

기술 • 용도 / 기능

Discovered by Cronstedt in 1751 in kupfernickel (niccolite). Nickel is found as a constituent in most meteoritesand often serves as one of the criteria for distinguishing a meteorite from other minerals. Iron meteorites, or siderites, may contain iron alloyed withfrom 5 to nearly 20% nickel. Nickel is obtained commercially from pentlandite and pyrrhotite of the Sudbury region of Ontario, a district that producesmuch of the world’s nickel. It is now thought that the Sudbury deposit is the result of an ancient meteorite impact. Other deposits of nickel are foundin Russia, New Caledonia, Australia, Cuba, Indonesia, and elsewhere. Nickel is silvery white and takes on a high polish. It is hard, malleable, ductile,somewhat ferromagnetic, and a fair conductor of heat and electricity. It belongs to the iron-cobalt group of metals and is chiefly valuable for the alloysit forms. It is extensively used for making stainless steel and other corrosion-resistant alloys such as Invar(R), Monel(R), Inconel(R), and the Hastelloys(R).Tubing made of a copper-nickel alloy is extensively used in making desalination plants for converting sea water into fresh water. Nickel is also nowused extensively in coinage and in making nickel steel for armor plate and burglar-proof vaults, and is a component in Nichrome®, Permalloy®, andconstantan. Nickel added to glass gives a green color. Nickel plating is often used to provide a protective coating for other metals, and finely dividednickel is a catalyst for hydrogenating vegetable oils. It is also used in ceramics, in the manufacture of Alnico magnets, and in the Edison® storagebattery. The sulfate and the oxides are important compounds. Natural nickel is a mixture of five stable isotopes; nineteen other unstable isotopes areknown. Nickel sulfide fume and dust is recognized as having carcinogenic potential. Nickel metal (99.9%) is priced at about $100/kg or less in largerquantities. 1

• "Stainless steels show high tensile strength and excellent resistance to corrosion. The most common kind contains 14-18% chromium and 7-9% nickel." 2
• "Miners of nickel ore have a high rate of nasal cancer." 3

물리적 특성

녹는 점:4*  1455 °C = 1728.15 K = 2651 °F
비점:4* 2913 °C = 3186.15 K = 5275.4 °F
승화 포인트:4 
트리플 포인트:4 
중요 포인트:4 
밀도:5  8.90 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

전자 구성

전자 구성: [Ar] 4s2 3d8
블록: d
최고 점유 에너지 레벨: 4
원자가 전자를: 

양자 번호:

n = 3
ℓ = 2
m = 0
ms = -½

본딩

전기 음성도 (폴링 규모):6 1.91
Electropositivity (폴링 규모): 2.09
전자 친화도:7 1.156 eV
산화 미국: +2,3
작업 기능:8 5.15 eV = 8.2503E-19 J

이온화 전위   eV 9  kJ/mol  
1 7.6398    737.1
2 18.16884    1753.0
3 35.19    3395.3
4 54.9    5297.0
5 76.06    7338.7
6 108    10420.4
7 133    12832.5
8 162    15630.6
9 193    18621.7
이온화 전위   eV 9  kJ/mol  
10 224.6    21670.6
11 321    30971.8
12 352    33962.8
13 384    37050.4
14 430    41488.7
15 464    44769.2
16 499    48146.2
17 571.08    55100.8
18 607.06    58572.4
이온화 전위   eV 9  kJ/mol  
19 1541    148683.9
20 1648    159007.8
21 1756    169428.2
22 1894    182743.2
23 2011    194032.0
24 2131    205610.2
25 2295    221433.8
26 2399.2    231487.6
27 10288.8    992718.0
28 10775.4    1039667.8

열화학

비열: 0.444 J/g°C 10 = 26.060 J/mol°C = 0.106 cal/g°C = 6.228 cal/mol°C
열 전도성: 90.7 (W/m)/K, 27°C 11
퓨전의 열: 17.47 kJ/mol 12 = 297.6 J/g
기화의 열: 370.4 kJ/mol 13 = 6310.8 J/g
물질의 상태 형성의 엔탈피 (ΔHf°)14 엔트로피 (S°)14 깁스 자유 에너지 (ΔGf°)14
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 7.14 29.87376 0 0
(g) 102.7 429.6968 43.519 182.083496 91.9 384.5096

동위 원소

핵종 질량 15 하프 라이프 15 핵 스핀 15 에너지 바인딩
48Ni 48.01975(54)# 10# ms [>500 ns] 0+ 347.82 MeV
49Ni 49.00966(43)# 13(4) ms [12(+5-3) ms] 7/2-# 365.20 MeV
50Ni 49.99593(28)# 9.1(18) ms 0+ 386.32 MeV
51Ni 50.98772(28)# 30# ms [>200 ns] 7/2-# 401.84 MeV
52Ni 51.97568(9)# 38(5) ms 0+ 421.09 MeV
53Ni 52.96847(17)# 45(15) ms (7/2-)# 435.68 MeV
54Ni 53.95791(5) 104(7) ms 0+ 454.00 MeV
55Ni 54.951330(12) 204.7(17) ms 7/2- 467.66 MeV
56Ni 55.942132(12) 6.075(10) d 0+ 484.11 MeV
57Ni 56.9397935(19) 35.60(6) h 3/2- 494.98 MeV
58Ni 57.9353429(7) 안정된 0+ 506.78 MeV
59Ni 58.9343467(7) 7.6(5)E+4 a 3/2- 515.78 MeV
60Ni 59.9307864(7) 안정된 0+ 527.58 MeV
61Ni 60.9310560(7) 안정된 3/2- 534.72 MeV
62Ni 61.9283451(6) 안정된 0+ 545.58 MeV
63Ni 62.9296694(6) 100.1(20) a 1/2- 552.72 MeV
64Ni 63.9279660(7) 안정된 0+ 562.66 MeV
65Ni 64.9300843(7) 2.5172(3) h 5/2- 567.93 MeV
66Ni 65.9291393(15) 54.6(3) h 0+ 576.94 MeV
67Ni 66.931569(3) 21(1) s 1/2- 583.14 MeV
68Ni 67.931869(3) 29(2) s 0+ 591.22 MeV
69Ni 68.935610(4) 11.5(3) s 9/2+ 595.56 MeV
70Ni 69.93650(37) 6.0(3) s 0+ 602.70 MeV
71Ni 70.94074(40) 2.56(3) s 1/2-# 607.05 MeV
72Ni 71.94209(47) 1.57(5) s 0+ 613.25 MeV
73Ni 72.94647(32)# 0.84(3) s (9/2+) 617.60 MeV
74Ni 73.94807(43)# 0.68(18) s 0+ 623.81 MeV
75Ni 74.95287(43)# 0.6(2) s (7/2+)# 628.15 MeV
76Ni 75.95533(97)# 470(390) ms [0.24(+55-24) s] 0+ 633.43 MeV
77Ni 76.96055(54)# 300# ms [>300 ns] 9/2+# 636.84 MeV
78Ni 77.96318(118)# 120# ms [>300 ns] 0+ 642.12 MeV
값은 # 순수 실험 데이터에서 유래하지만, 적어도 부분적으로 체계적인 동향에서되지 않습니다 표시. 약한 할당 인수는 괄호로 묶와 함께 회전합니다. 15

풍부

지구 - 소스 화합물: sulfides 16
지구 - 해수: 0.00056 mg/L 17
지구 -  빵 껍질:  84 mg/kg = 0.0084% 17
지구 -  맨틀:  0.3% 18
지구 -  핵심:  8.5% 18
지구 -  암석권:  0.01% 19
지구 -  합계:  1.82% 20
수성 (행성) -  합계:  3.66% 20
금성 -  합계:  1.77 % 20
우주 -  합계:  0.006% 18
구립 운석 - 합계: 4×104 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 21
인간의 몸 - 합계: 0.00001% 22

화합물

물가





안전 정보


물질 안전 보건 자료 - ACI Alloys, Inc.

자세한 내용은

외부 링크:

저널:
(1) John Trowbridge and Samuel Sheldon, Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci. 24, 181-184 (1889)

소스

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:20.
(2) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 912.
(3) - Neighbors, Marianne and Tannehill-Jones, Ruth. Human Diseases, 2nd ed.; Thomson Delmar Learning: Clifton Park, NY, 2006; p 32.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(6) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(8) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(14) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(15) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(16) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(17) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(18) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 962.
(19) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 964.
(20) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(21) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.
(22) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 7:17.