마그네슘

소개

원자 번호: 12
그룹: 2 or II A
원자 무게: 24.305
기간: 3
CAS 번호: 7439-95-4

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고체 (예상)

기술 • 용도 / 기능

Compounds of magnesium have long been known. Black recognized magnesium as an element in 1755. It was isolated by Davy in 1808, and prepared in coherent form by Bussy in 1831. Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element in the earth’s crust. It does not occur uncombined, but is found in large deposits in the form of magnesite, dolomite, and other minerals. The metal is now principally obtained in the U.S. by electrolysis of fused magnesium chloride derived from brines, wells, and sea water. Magnesium is a light, silvery-white, and fairly tough metal. It tarnishes slightly in air, and finely divided magnesium readily ignites upon heating in air and burns with a dazzling white flame. It is used in flashlight photography, flares, and pyrotechnics, including incendiary bombs. It is one third lighter than aluminium, and in alloys is essential for airplane and missile contruction. The metal improves the mechanical, fabrication, and welding characteristics of aluminum when used as an alloying agent. Magnesium is used in producing nodular graphite in cast iron,and is used as an additive to conventional propellants. It is also used as a reducing agent in the production of pure uranium and other metals from their salts. The hydroxide (milk of magnesia), chloride, sulfate (Epsom salts), and citrate are used in medicine. Dead-burned magnesite is employed for refractory purposes such as brick and liners in furnaces and converters. Organic magnesium compounds (Grignard’s reagents) are important. Magnesium is an important element in both plant and animal life. Chlorophylls are magnesium-centered porphyrins. The adult daily requirement of magnesium is about 300 mg/day, but this is affected by various factors. Great care should be taken in handling magnesium metal, especially in the finely divided state, as serious fires can occur. Water should not be used on burning magnesium or on magnesium fires. Natural magnesium contains three isotopes. Twelve other isotopes are recognized. Magnesium metal costs about $170/kg (99.99%). 1

• "(as the Mg2+ ion) plays a vital role in metabolism and muscle functions" 2
• "commonly used to produce the bright light for photographic flash units" 3
• "is a useful structural material, especially if alloyed with aluminum" 4
• "alloys having more magnesium than aluminum are used when a high strength-to-weight ratio is needed and when corrosion resistance is important, such as in aircraft and automotive parts and in lightweight tools" 5
• "It has been suggested that magnesium, an essential component in chlorophyll, is removed from pine needles by the combined effects of ozone and acids...Another harmful effect of acid rain may be that it leaches essential metal ions such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ from soil as soluble salts." 6
• "The tires on the Hummer vehicles used in the Gulf War were made blowout-proof by strong, lightweight magnesium inserts....used in photographic flash accessories and fireworks. It is very lightweight and is currently used in many alloys for building materials." 7
• "used in lightweight alloys...Mg compounds find applications in the pharmaceutical and chemical process industries." 8

물리적 특성

녹는 점:9*  650 °C = 923.15 K = 1202 °F
비점:9* 1090 °C = 1363.15 K = 1994 °F
승화 포인트:9 
트리플 포인트:9 
중요 포인트:9 
밀도:10  1.74 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

전자 구성

전자 구성: [Ne] 3s2
블록: s
최고 점유 에너지 레벨: 3
원자가 전자를: 2

양자 번호:

n = 3
ℓ = 0
m = 0
ms = -½

본딩

전기 음성도 (폴링 규모):11 1.31
Electropositivity (폴링 규모): 2.69
전자 친화도:12 not stable eV
산화 미국: +2
작업 기능:13 3.66 eV = 5.86332E-19 J

이온화 전위   eV 14  kJ/mol  
1 7.64624    737.7
2 15.03528    1450.7
3 80.1437    7732.7
4 109.2655    10542.5
이온화 전위   eV 14  kJ/mol  
5 141.27    13630.5
6 186.76    18019.6
7 225.02    21711.1
8 265.96    25661.2
이온화 전위   eV 14  kJ/mol  
9 328.06    31653.0
10 367.5    35458.4
11 1761.805    169988.3
12 1962.665    189368.3

열화학

비열: 1.023 J/g°C 15 = 24.864 J/mol°C = 0.245 cal/g°C = 5.943 cal/mol°C
열 전도성: 156 (W/m)/K, 27°C 16
퓨전의 열: 8.954 kJ/mol 17 = 368.4 J/g
기화의 열: 127.4 kJ/mol 18 = 5241.7 J/g
물질의 상태 형성의 엔탈피 (ΔHf°)19 엔트로피 (S°)19 깁스 자유 에너지 (ΔGf°)19
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 7.814 32.693776 0 0
(ℓ) 2.16 9.03744 10.16 42.50944 1.46 6.10864
(g) 35.28 147.61152 35.50 148.532 27.03 113.09352

동위 원소

핵종 질량 20 하프 라이프 20 핵 스핀 20 에너지 바인딩
19Mg 19.03547(27) 1/2-# 111.36 MeV
20Mg 20.018863(29) 90.8(24) ms 0+ 135.27 MeV
21Mg 21.011713(18) 122(2) ms (5/2,3/2)+ 149.86 MeV
22Mg 21.9995738(14) 3.8755(12) s 0+ 169.11 MeV
23Mg 22.9941237(14) 11.317(11) s 3/2+ 181.84 MeV
24Mg 23.985041700(14) 안정된 0+ 198.30 MeV
25Mg 24.98583692(3) 안정된 5/2+ 206.37 MeV
26Mg 25.982592929(30) 안정된 0+ 217.23 MeV
27Mg 26.98434059(5) 9.458(12) min 1/2+ 223.44 MeV
28Mg 27.9838768(22) 20.915(9) h 0+ 232.44 MeV
29Mg 28.988600(15) 1.30(12) s 3/2+ 235.86 MeV
30Mg 29.990434(9) 335(17) ms 0+ 242.07 MeV
31Mg 30.996546(13) 230(20) ms 3/2+ 244.55 MeV
32Mg 31.998975(19) 86(5) ms 0+ 250.76 MeV
33Mg 33.005254(21) 90.5(16) ms 7/2-# 252.31 MeV
34Mg 34.00946(25) 20(10) ms 0+ 256.65 MeV
35Mg 35.01734(43)# 70(40) ms (7/2-)# 257.27 MeV
36Mg 36.02300(54)# 3.9(13) ms 0+ 259.75 MeV
37Mg 37.03140(97)# 40# ms [>260 ns] 7/2-# 260.37 MeV
38Mg 38.03757(54)# 1# ms [>260 ns] 0+ 262.86 MeV
39Mg 39.04677(55)# <260 ns 7/2-# 262.54 MeV
40Mg 40.05393(97)# 1# ms 0+ 264.10 MeV
값은 # 순수 실험 데이터에서 유래하지만, 적어도 부분적으로 체계적인 동향에서되지 않습니다 표시. 약한 할당 인수는 괄호로 묶와 함께 회전합니다. 20

반응

풍부

지구 - 소스 화합물: carbonates/sulfates 26
지구 - 해수: 1290 mg/L 27
지구 -  빵 껍질:  23300 mg/kg = 2.33% 27
지구 -  맨틀:  16.6% 28
지구 -  암석권:  2.76% 29
지구 -  수계:  0.13% 29
지구 -  합계:  13.90% 30
수성 (행성) -  합계:  6.50% 30
금성 -  합계:  14.54% 30
우주 -  합계:  0.06% 28
구립 운석 - 합계: 9.4×105 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 31
인간의 몸 - 합계: 0.027% 32

화합물

물가





안전 정보


물질 안전 보건 자료 - ACI Alloys, Inc.

자세한 내용은

외부 링크:

소스

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