리튬

소개

원자 번호: 3
그룹: 1 or I A
원자 무게: 6.941
기간: 2
CAS 번호: 7439-93-2

분류

금속
비금속
금속 비슷한
알칼리 금속
알칼리 토 금속
전이 금속
칼 코겐
할로겐
노블 가스
란타 노이드
악티 노이드
희토류 원소
백금 그룹 금속
초 우라늄
더 안정 동위 원소 없습니다
고체
액체
가스
고체 (예상)

기술 • 용도 / 기능

Discovered by Arfvedson in 1817. Lithium is the lightest of all metals, with a density only about half that of water. It does not occur free in nature; combined it is found in small amounts in nearly all igneous rocks and in the waters of many mineral springs. Lepidolite, spodumene, petalite, and amblygonite are the more important minerals containing it. Lithium is presently being recovered from brines of Searles Lake, in California, and from Nevada, Chile, and Argentina. Large deposits of spodumene are found in North Carolina. The metal is produced electrolytically from the fused chloride. Lithium is silvery in appearance, much like Na and K, other members of the alkali metal series. It reacts with water, but not as vigorously as sodium. Lithium imparts a beautiful crimson color to a flame, but when the metal burns strongly the flame is a dazzling white. Since World War II, the production of lithium metal and its compounds has increased greatly. Because the metal has the highest specific heat of any solid element, it has found use in heat transfer applications; however, it is corrosive and requires special handling. The metal has been used as an alloying agent, is of interest in synthesis of organic compounds, and has nuclear applications. It ranks as a leading contender as a battery anode material as it has a high electrochemical potential. Lithium is used in special glasses and ceramics. The glass for the 200-inch telescope at Mt. Palomar contains lithium as a minor ingredient. Lithium chloride is one of the most hygroscopic materials known, and it, as well as lithium bromide, is used in air conditioning and industrial drying systems. Lithium stearate is used as an all-purpose and high-temperature lubricant. Other lithium compounds are used in dry cells and storage batteries. Seven isotopes of lithium are recognized. Natural lithium contains two isotopes. The metal is priced at about $500/kg (99.9%). 1

• "It is used as a heat transfer medium in experimental nuclear reactors. Extremely light lithium-aluminum alloys are used in aircraft construction. Lithium compounds are used in some lightweight dry cells and storage batteries because they have very long lives, even in extreme temperatures...Lithium compounds are used for the treatment of some types of mental disorders (mainly manic depression)." 2

물리적 특성

녹는 점:3*  180.50 °C = 453.65 K = 356.9 °F
비점:3* 1342 °C = 1615.15 K = 2447.6 °F
승화 포인트:3 
트리플 포인트:3 
중요 포인트:3 2950 °C = 3223.15 K = 5342 °F 3
밀도:4  0.534 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

전자 구성

전자 구성: [He] 2s1
블록: s
최고 점유 에너지 레벨: 2
원자가 전자를: 1

양자 번호:

n = 2
ℓ = 0
m = 0
ms = +½

본딩

전기 음성도 (폴링 규모):5 0.98
Electropositivity (폴링 규모): 3.02
전자 친화도:6 0.618049 eV
산화 미국: +1
작업 기능:7 3.10 eV = 4.9662E-19 J

이온화 전위   eV 8  kJ/mol  
1 5.39172    520.2
이온화 전위   eV 8  kJ/mol  
2 75.64018    7298.2
이온화 전위   eV 8  kJ/mol  
3 122.45429    11815.0

열화학

비열: 3.582 J/g°C 9 = 24.863 J/mol°C = 0.856 cal/g°C = 5.942 cal/mol°C
열 전도성: 84.7 (W/m)/K, 27°C 10
퓨전의 열: 3 kJ/mol 11 = 432.2 J/g
기화의 열: 145.92 kJ/mol 12 = 21022.9 J/g
물질의 상태 형성의 엔탈피 (ΔHf°)13 엔트로피 (S°)13 깁스 자유 에너지 (ΔGf°)13
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 29.1 121.7544 0 0
(ℓ) 0.569 2.380696 8.11 33.93224 0.223 0.933032
(g) 38.4 160.6656 33.14 138.65776 30.6 128.0304

동위 원소

핵종 질량 14 하프 라이프 14 핵 스핀 14 에너지 바인딩
10Li 10.035481(16) 2(5)E-21 s [1.2(3) MeV] (1-,2-) 45.76 MeV
11Li 11.043798(21) 8.75(14) ms 3/2- 46.38 MeV
12Li 12.053779(107)# <10 ns 45.14 MeV
4Li 4.02719(23) 91(9)E-24 s [6.3 MeV] 2- 4.69 MeV
5Li 5.01254(5) 370(30)E-24 s [~1.5 MeV] 3/2- 26.37 MeV
6Li 6.015122795(16) 안정된 1+ 32.02 MeV
7Li 7.01600455(8) 안정된 3/2- 39.25 MeV
8Li 8.022487359(10) 840.3(9) ms 2+ 41.36 MeV
9Li 9.026789499(21) 178.3(4) ms 3/2- 45.42 MeV
값은 # 순수 실험 데이터에서 유래하지만, 적어도 부분적으로 체계적인 동향에서되지 않습니다 표시. 약한 할당 인수는 괄호로 묶와 함께 회전합니다. 14

반응

풍부

지구 - 소스 화합물: silicates 18
지구 - 해수: 0.18 mg/L 19
지구 -  빵 껍질:  20 mg/kg = 0.002% 19
지구 -  합계:  1.85 ppm 20
수성 (행성) -  합계:  0.87 ppm 20
금성 -  합계:  1.94 ppm 20
구립 운석 - 합계: ~50 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 21

화합물

안전 정보

NFPA 704 Ratings:
Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or moderate residual injury.
Flammability: 0 - Will not burn.
Reactivity: 2 - Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water.
Special Hazard: W - Reacts with water in an unusual or dangerous manner.

물질 안전 보건 자료 - ACI Alloys, Inc.

자세한 내용은

외부 링크:

잡지:
(1) Moyer, Michael. How Much is Left?. Scientific American, September 2010, pp 74-81.
(2) Fischetti, Mark. Charge Under Control. Scientific American, August 2010, pp 26-27.

소스

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:18.
(2) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 924.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(5) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(7) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(13) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(14) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(15) - Atkins, Jones, and Laverman. Chemical Principles 6th ed.; W.H. Freeman and Company: New York, NY, 2013; p F94.
(16) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 299.
(17) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 78.
(18) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(19) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(20) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(21) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.