이리듐

소개

원자 번호: 77
그룹: 9 or VIII B
원자 무게: 192.217
기간: 6
CAS 번호: 7439-88-5

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고체 (예상)

기술 • 용도 / 기능

Discovered in 1803 by Tennant in the residue left when crude platinum is dissolved by aqua regia. The name iridium is appropriate, for its salts are highly colored. Iridium,a metal of the platinum family, is white, similar to platinum, but with a slight yellowish cast. It is very hard and brittle, making it very hard to machine,form, or work. It is the most corrosion-resistant metal known, and was used in making the standard meter bar of Paris, which is a 90% platinum-10%iridium alloy. This meter bar was replaced in 1960 as a fundamental unit of length (see under Krypton). Iridium is not attacked by any of the acidsnor by aqua regia, but is attacked by molten salts, such as NaCl and NaCN. Iridium occurs uncombined in nature with platinum and other metals ofthis family in alluvial deposits. It is recovered as a by-product from the nickel mining industry. The presence of iridium has recently been used inexamining the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. Meteorites contain small amounts of iridium. Because iridium is found widely distributed at theK-T boundary, it has been suggested that a large meteorite or asteroid collided with the earth, killing the dinosaurs, and creating a large dust cloudand crater. Searches for such a crater point to one in the Yucatan, known as Chicxulub. Iridium has found use in making crucibles and apparatus foruse at high temperatures. It is also used for electrical contacts. Its principal use is as a hardening agent for platinum. With osmium, it forms an alloywhich is used for tipping pens and compass bearings. The specific gravity of iridium is only very slightly lower than that of osmium, which has beengenerally credited as being the heaviest known element. Calculations of the densities of iridium and osmium from the space lattices gives values of22.65 and 22.61 g/cm^3, respectively. These values may be more reliable than actual physical measurements. Natural iridium contains two isotopes.Forty two other isotopes, all radioactive, are now recognized. At present, therefore, we know that either iridium or osmium is the densest knownelement, but the data do not yet allow selection between the two. Iridium costs about $50/g. 1

• "In addition to hardening platinum, iridium is used to tip gold pens. A platinum-iridium alloy is used for standard weights and measures. Iridium black is an important catalyst." 2

물리적 특성

녹는 점:3*  2446 °C = 2719.15 K = 4434.8 °F
비점:3* 4428 °C = 4701.15 K = 8002.4 °F
승화 포인트:3 
트리플 포인트:3 
중요 포인트:3 
밀도:4  22.5 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

전자 구성

전자 구성: [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d7
블록: d
최고 점유 에너지 레벨: 6
원자가 전자를: 

양자 번호:

n = 5
ℓ = 2
m = -1
ms = -½

본딩

전기 음성도 (폴링 규모):5 2.2
Electropositivity (폴링 규모): 1.8
전자 친화도:6 1.5638 eV
산화 미국: +4,3,6
작업 기능:7 5.6 eV = 8.9712E-19 J

이온화 전위   eV 8  kJ/mol  
이온화 전위   eV 8  kJ/mol  
이온화 전위   eV 8  kJ/mol  
1 8.967    865.2

열화학

비열: 0.131 J/g°C 9 = 25.180 J/mol°C = 0.031 cal/g°C = 6.018 cal/mol°C
열 전도성: 147 (W/m)/K, 27°C 10
퓨전의 열: 26.1 kJ/mol 11 = 135.8 J/g
기화의 열: 604 kJ/mol 12 = 3142.3 J/g
물질의 상태 형성의 엔탈피 (ΔHf°)13 엔트로피 (S°)13 깁스 자유 에너지 (ΔGf°)13
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 8.48 35.48032 0 0
(g) 159.0 665.256 46.240 193.46816 4.968 20.786112

동위 원소

핵종 질량 14 하프 라이프 14 핵 스핀 14 에너지 바인딩
164Ir 163.99220(44)# 1# ms 2-# 1,272.77 MeV
165Ir 164.98752(23)# <1# μs 1/2+# 1,290.15 MeV
166Ir 165.98582(22)# 10.5(22) ms (2-) 1,298.23 MeV
167Ir 166.981665(20) 35.2(20) ms 1/2+ 1,306.30 MeV
168Ir 167.97988(16)# 161(21) ms high 1,323.68 MeV
169Ir 168.976295(28) 780(360) ms [0.64(+46-24) s] 1/2+# 1,331.75 MeV
170Ir 169.97497(11)# 910(150) ms [0.87(+18-12) s] low# 1,339.83 MeV
171Ir 170.97163(4) 3.6(10) s [3.2(+13-7) s] 1/2+# 1,347.90 MeV
172Ir 171.97046(11)# 4.4(3) s (3+) 1,355.97 MeV
173Ir 172.967502(15) 9.0(8) s (3/2+,5/2+) 1,373.35 MeV
174Ir 173.966861(30) 7.9(6) s (3+) 1,381.43 MeV
175Ir 174.964113(21) 9(2) s (5/2-) 1,389.50 MeV
176Ir 175.963649(22) 8.3(6) s 1,397.57 MeV
177Ir 176.961302(21) 30(2) s 5/2- 1,405.64 MeV
178Ir 177.961082(21) 12(2) s 1,413.71 MeV
179Ir 178.959122(12) 79(1) s (5/2)- 1,431.10 MeV
180Ir 179.959229(23) 1.5(1) min (4,5)(+#) 1,439.17 MeV
181Ir 180.957625(28) 4.90(15) min (5/2)- 1,447.24 MeV
182Ir 181.958076(23) 15(1) min (3+) 1,455.31 MeV
183Ir 182.956846(27) 57(4) min 5/2- 1,463.38 MeV
184Ir 183.95748(3) 3.09(3) h 5- 1,471.45 MeV
185Ir 184.95670(3) 14.4(1) h 5/2- 1,479.53 MeV
186Ir 185.957946(18) 16.64(3) h 5+ 1,487.60 MeV
187Ir 186.957363(7) 10.5(3) h 3/2+ 1,495.67 MeV
188Ir 187.958853(8) 41.5(5) h 1- 1,503.74 MeV
189Ir 188.958719(14) 13.2(1) d 3/2+ 1,511.81 MeV
190Ir 189.9605460(18) 11.78(10) d 4- 1,510.57 MeV
191Ir 190.9605940(18) 안정된 3/2+ 1,518.64 MeV
192Ir 191.9626050(18) 73.827(13) d 4+ 1,526.71 MeV
193Ir 192.9629264(18) 안정된 3/2+ 1,534.78 MeV
194Ir 193.9650784(18) 19.28(13) h 1- 1,542.85 MeV
195Ir 194.9659796(18) 2.5(2) h 3/2+ 1,550.92 MeV
196Ir 195.96840(4) 52(1) s (0-) 1,559.00 MeV
197Ir 196.969653(22) 5.8(5) min 3/2+ 1,567.07 MeV
198Ir 197.97228(21)# 8(1) s 1,565.82 MeV
199Ir 198.97380(4) 20# s 3/2+# 1,573.89 MeV
값은 # 순수 실험 데이터에서 유래하지만, 적어도 부분적으로 체계적인 동향에서되지 않습니다 표시. 약한 할당 인수는 괄호로 묶와 함께 회전합니다. 14

풍부

지구 -  빵 껍질:  0.001 mg/kg = 0.0000001% 15
지구 -  합계:  840 ppb 16
수성 (행성) -  합계:  650 ppb 16
금성 -  합계:  890 ppb 16
구립 운석 - 합계: 0.35 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 17

화합물

안전 정보


물질 안전 보건 자료 - ACI Alloys, Inc.

자세한 내용은

외부 링크:

소스

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:16.
(2) - Brownlee, Raymond B., Fuller, Robert W., and Whitsit, Jesse E. Elements of Chemistry; Allyn and Bacon: Boston, Massachusetts, 1959; p 545.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(5) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(7) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(13) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(14) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(15) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(16) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(17) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.