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소개

원자 번호: 32
그룹: 14 or IV A
원자 무게: 72.64
기간: 4
CAS 번호: 7440-56-2

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고체 (예상)

기술 • 용도 / 기능

Predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 as ekasilicon, and discovered by Winkler in 1886. The metal is found in argyrodite, a sulfide of germanium and silver;in germanite, which contains 8% of the element; in zinc ores; in coal; and in other minerals. The element is frequently obtained commercially fromflue dusts of smelters processing zinc ores, and has been recovered from the by-products of combustion of certain coals. Its presence in coal insuresa large reserve of the element in the years to come. Germanium can be separated from other metals by fractional distillation of its volatile tetrachloride.The tetrachloride may then be hydrolyzed to give GeO2; the dioxide can be reduced with hydrogen to give the metal. Recently developed zone-refiningtechniques permit the production of germanium of ultra-high purity. The element is a gray-white metalloid, and in its pure state is crystalline and brittle,retaining its luster in air at room temperature. It is a very important semiconductor material. Zone-refining techniques have led to production ofcrystalline germanium for semiconductor use with an impurity of only one part in 10^10. Doped with arsenic, gallium, or other elements, it is used asa transistor element in thousands of electronic applications. Its application as a semiconductor element now provides the largest use for germanium.Germanium is also finding many other applications including use as an alloying agent, as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps, and as a catalyst. Germaniumand germanium oxide are transparent to the infrared and are used in infrared spectroscopes and other optical equipment, including extremely sensitiveinfrared detectors. Germanium oxide’s high index of refraction and dispersion has made it useful as a component of glasses used in wide-angle cameralenses and microscope objectives. The field of organogermanium chemistry is becoming increasingly important. Certain germanium compounds havea low mammalian toxicity, but a marked activity against certain bacteria, which makes them of interest as chemotherapeutic agents. The cost ofgermanium is about $3/g (99.999% purity). Twenty nine isotopes and isomers are known, five of which occur naturally. 1

• "is a semimetal used mainly in the manufacture of semiconductors for transistors and similar electronic devices" 2

물리적 특성

녹는 점:3*  938.25 °C = 1211.4 K = 1720.85 °F
비점:3* 2833 °C = 3106.15 K = 5131.4 °F
승화 포인트:3 
트리플 포인트:3 
중요 포인트:3 
밀도:4  5.3234 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

전자 구성

전자 구성: [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p2
블록: p
최고 점유 에너지 레벨: 4
원자가 전자를: 4

양자 번호:

n = 4
ℓ = 1
m = 0
ms = +½

본딩

전기 음성도 (폴링 규모):5 2.01
Electropositivity (폴링 규모): 1.99
전자 친화도:6 1.232712 eV
산화 미국: +4,2
작업 기능:7 5.0 eV = 8.01E-19 J

이온화 전위   eV 8  kJ/mol  
1 7.8994    762.2
이온화 전위   eV 8  kJ/mol  
2 15.93462    1537.5
3 34.2241    3302.1
이온화 전위   eV 8  kJ/mol  
4 45.7131    4410.6
5 93.5    9021.4

열화학

비열: 0.320 J/g°C 9 = 23.245 J/mol°C = 0.076 cal/g°C = 5.556 cal/mol°C
열 전도성: 59.9 (W/m)/K, 27°C 10
퓨전의 열: 36.94 kJ/mol 11 = 508.5 J/g
기화의 열: 330.9 kJ/mol 12 = 4555.3 J/g
물질의 상태 형성의 엔탈피 (ΔHf°)13 엔트로피 (S°)13 깁스 자유 에너지 (ΔGf°)13
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 7.43 31.08712 0 0
(g) 90.0 376.56 40.103 167.790952 80.3 335.9752

동위 원소

핵종 질량 14 하프 라이프 14 핵 스핀 14 에너지 바인딩
58Ge 57.99101(34)# 0+ 451.48 MeV
59Ge 58.98175(30)# 7/2-# 468.87 MeV
60Ge 59.97019(25)# 30# ms 0+ 487.19 MeV
61Ge 60.96379(32)# 39(12) ms (3/2-)# 501.78 MeV
62Ge 61.95465(15)# 129(35) ms 0+ 518.23 MeV
63Ge 62.94964(21)# 142(8) ms (3/2-)# 530.96 MeV
64Ge 63.94165(3) 63.7(25) s 0+ 546.49 MeV
65Ge 64.93944(11) 30.9(5) s (3/2)- 556.42 MeV
66Ge 65.93384(3) 2.26(5) h 0+ 570.08 MeV
67Ge 66.932734(5) 18.9(3) min 1/2- 579.08 MeV
68Ge 67.928094(7) 270.95(16) d 0+ 590.88 MeV
69Ge 68.9279645(14) 39.05(10) h 5/2- 599.88 MeV
70Ge 69.9242474(11) 안정된 0+ 610.75 MeV
71Ge 70.9249510(11) 11.43(3) d 1/2- 618.82 MeV
72Ge 71.9220758(18) 안정된 0+ 628.76 MeV
73Ge 72.9234589(18) 안정된 9/2+ 635.90 MeV
74Ge 73.9211778(18) 안정된 0+ 645.83 MeV
75Ge 74.9228589(18) 82.78(4) min 1/2- 652.97 MeV
76Ge 75.9214026(18) 1.78(8)E+21 a 0+ 661.97 MeV
77Ge 76.9235486(18) 11.30(1) h 7/2+ 668.18 MeV
78Ge 77.922853(4) 88(1) min 0+ 677.18 MeV
79Ge 78.9254(1) 18.98(3) s (1/2)- 682.46 MeV
80Ge 79.92537(3) 29.5(4) s 0+ 690.53 MeV
81Ge 80.92882(13) 7.6(6) s 9/2+# 695.81 MeV
82Ge 81.92955(26) 4.55(5) s 0+ 702.95 MeV
83Ge 82.93462(21)# 1.85(6) s (5/2+)# 706.36 MeV
84Ge 83.93747(32)# 0.947(11) s 0+ 711.64 MeV
85Ge 84.94303(43)# 535(47) ms 5/2+# 714.12 MeV
86Ge 85.94649(54)# >150 ns 0+ 719.40 MeV
87Ge 86.95251(54)# 0.14# s 5/2+# 721.88 MeV
88Ge 87.95691(75)# >=300 ns 0+ 726.23 MeV
89Ge 88.96383(97)# >150 ns 3/2+# 727.78 MeV
값은 # 순수 실험 데이터에서 유래하지만, 적어도 부분적으로 체계적인 동향에서되지 않습니다 표시. 약한 할당 인수는 괄호로 묶와 함께 회전합니다. 14

풍부

지구 - 소스 화합물: sulfides 15
지구 - 해수: 0.00005 mg/L 16
지구 -  빵 껍질:  1.5 mg/kg = 0.00015% 16
지구 -  합계:  7.6 ppm 17
수성 (행성) -  합계:  1.24 ppm 17
금성 -  합계:  8.4 ppm 17
구립 운석 - 합계: 20 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 18

화합물

안전 정보


물질 안전 보건 자료 - ACI Alloys, Inc.

자세한 내용은

외부 링크:

소스

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:13.
(2) - Zumdahl, Steven S. Chemistry, 4th ed.; Houghton Mifflin: Boston, 1997; p 889.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(5) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(7) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(13) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(14) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(15) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(16) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(17) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(18) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.