크롬

소개

원자 번호: 24
그룹: 6 or VI B
원자 무게: 51.9961
기간: 4
CAS 번호: 7440-47-3

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가스
고체 (예상)

기술 • 용도 / 기능

Discovered in 1797 by Vauquelin, who prepared the metal the next year, chromium is a steel-gray, lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish.The principal ore is chromite (FeCr2O4), which is found in Zimbabwe, Russia, Transvaal, Turkey, Iran, Albania, Finland, Democratic Republic ofMadagascar, and the Philippines. The metal is usually produced by reducing the oxide with aluminum. Chromium is used to harden steel, tomanufacture stainless steel, and to form many useful alloys. Much is used in plating to produce a hard, beautiful surface and to prevent corrosion.Chromium is used to give glass an emerald green color. It finds wide use as a catalyst. All compounds of chromium are colored; the most importantare the chromates of sodium and potassium (K2CrO4) and the dichromates (K2Cr2O7) and the potassium and ammonium chrome alums, as KCr(SO4)2· 12H2O. The dichromates are used as oxidizing agents in quantitative analysis, also in tanning leather. Other compounds are of industrial value; leadchromate is chrome yellow, a valued pigment. Chromium compounds are used in the textile industry as mordants, and by the aircraft and other industriesfor anodizing aluminum. The refractory industry has found chromite useful for forming bricks and shapes, as it has a high melting point, moderatethermal expansion, and stability of crystalline structure. Many chromium compounds are toxic and should be handled with proper safeguards. Naturalchromium contains four isotopes. Sixteen other isotopes are known. Chromium metal (99.99%) costs about $200/kg. Commercial grade chromium(99%) costs about $75/kg. 1

• "Stainless steels show high tensile strength and excellent resistance to corrosion. The most common kind contains 14-18% chromium and 7-9% nickel." 2
• "insulin action…believed to promote the action of insulin and thus influences the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins." 3

물리적 특성

녹는 점:4*  1907 °C = 2180.15 K = 3464.6 °F
비점:4* 2671 °C = 2944.15 K = 4839.8 °F
승화 포인트:4 
트리플 포인트:4 
중요 포인트:4 
밀도:5  7.15 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

전자 구성

전자 구성:  *[Ar] 4s1 3d5
블록: d
최고 점유 에너지 레벨: 4
원자가 전자를: 

양자 번호:

n = 3
ℓ = 2
m = 2
ms = +½

본딩

전기 음성도 (폴링 규모):6 1.66
Electropositivity (폴링 규모): 2.34
전자 친화도:7 0.666 eV
산화 미국: +3,2,6
작업 기능:8 4.40 eV = 7.0488E-19 J

이온화 전위   eV 9  kJ/mol  
1 6.7665    652.9
2 16.4857    1590.6
3 30.96    2987.2
4 49.16    4743.2
5 69.46    6701.9
6 90.6349    8744.9
7 160.18    15455.0
8 184.7    17820.8
이온화 전위   eV 9  kJ/mol  
9 209.3    20194.4
10 244.4    23581.0
11 270.8    26128.2
12 298    28752.6
13 354.8    34233.0
14 384.168    37066.6
15 1010.6    97508.1
16 1097    105844.4
이온화 전위   eV 9  kJ/mol  
17 1185    114335.1
18 1299    125334.4
19 1396    134693.5
20 1496    144342.0
21 1634    157657.0
22 1721.4    166089.8
23 7481.7    721874.1
24 7894.81    761733.2

열화학

비열: 0.449 J/g°C 10 = 23.346 J/mol°C = 0.107 cal/g°C = 5.580 cal/mol°C
열 전도성: 93.7 (W/m)/K, 27°C 11
퓨전의 열: 16.9 kJ/mol 12 = 325.0 J/g
기화의 열: 344.3 kJ/mol 13 = 6621.7 J/g
물질의 상태 형성의 엔탈피 (ΔHf°)14 엔트로피 (S°)14 깁스 자유 에너지 (ΔGf°)14
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 5.645 23.61868 0 0
(ℓ) 6.239 26.103976 8.660 36.23344 5.340 22.34256
(g) 95.00 397.48 41.64 174.22176 84.27 352.58568

동위 원소

핵종 질량 15 하프 라이프 15 핵 스핀 15 에너지 바인딩
42Cr 42.00643(32)# 14(3) ms [13(+4-2) ms] 0+ 314.63 MeV
43Cr 42.99771(24)# 21.6(7) ms (3/2+) 331.08 MeV
44Cr 43.98555(5)# 54(4) ms [53(+4-3) ms] 0+ 350.33 MeV
45Cr 44.97964(54) 50(6) ms 7/2-# 363.99 MeV
46Cr 45.968359(21) 0.26(6) s 0+ 382.31 MeV
47Cr 46.962900(15) 500(15) ms 3/2- 395.97 MeV
48Cr 47.954032(8) 21.56(3) h 0+ 411.49 MeV
49Cr 48.9513357(26) 42.3(1) min 5/2- 422.36 MeV
50Cr 49.9460442(11) 안정된 0+ 435.09 MeV
51Cr 50.9447674(11) 27.7025(24) d 7/2- 445.02 MeV
52Cr 51.9405075(8) 안정된 0+ 456.82 MeV
53Cr 52.9406494(8) 안정된 3/2- 464.89 MeV
54Cr 53.9388804(8) 안정된 0+ 474.83 MeV
55Cr 54.9408397(8) 3.497(3) min 3/2- 481.04 MeV
56Cr 55.9406531(20) 5.94(10) min 0+ 489.11 MeV
57Cr 56.943613(2) 21.1(10) s (3/2-) 494.38 MeV
58Cr 57.94435(22) 7.0(3) s 0+ 501.52 MeV
59Cr 58.94859(26) 460(50) ms 5/2-# 505.87 MeV
60Cr 59.95008(23) 560(60) ms 0+ 512.08 MeV
61Cr 60.95472(27) 261(15) ms 5/2-# 516.42 MeV
62Cr 61.95661(36) 199(9) ms 0+ 522.63 MeV
63Cr 62.96186(32)# 129(2) ms (1/2-)# 526.04 MeV
64Cr 63.96441(43)# 43(1) ms 0+ 531.32 MeV
65Cr 64.97016(54)# 27(3) ms (1/2-)# 533.80 MeV
66Cr 65.97338(64)# 10(6) ms 0+ 539.08 MeV
67Cr 66.97955(75)# 10# ms [>300 ns] 1/2-# 541.56 MeV
값은 # 순수 실험 데이터에서 유래하지만, 적어도 부분적으로 체계적인 동향에서되지 않습니다 표시. 약한 할당 인수는 괄호로 묶와 함께 회전합니다. 15

반응

풍부

지구 - 소스 화합물: oxides 19
지구 - 해수: 0.0003 mg/L 20
지구 -  빵 껍질:  102 mg/kg = 0.0102% 20
지구 -  암석권:  0.012% 21
지구 -  합계:  4120 ppm 22
수성 (행성) -  합계:  7180 ppm 22
금성 -  합계:  4060 ppm 22
구립 운석 - 합계: 6600 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 23
인간의 몸 - 합계: 0.000003% 24

화합물

안전 정보


물질 안전 보건 자료 - ACI Alloys, Inc.

자세한 내용은

외부 링크:

소스

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(2) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 912.
(3) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 926-7.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(6) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(8) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(14) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(15) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
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(21) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 964.
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