염소

소개

원자 번호: 17
그룹: 17 or VII A
원자 무게: 35.453
기간: 3
CAS 번호: 7782-50-5

분류

금속
비금속
금속 비슷한
알칼리 금속
알칼리 토 금속
전이 금속
칼 코겐
할로겐
노블 가스
란타 노이드
악티 노이드
희토류 원소
백금 그룹 금속
초 우라늄
더 안정 동위 원소 없습니다
고체
액체
가스
고체 (예상)

기술 • 용도 / 기능

Discovered in 1774 by Scheele, who thought it contained oxygen; named in 1810 by Davy, who insisted it was an element.In nature it is found in the combined state only, chiefly with sodium as common salt (NaCl), carnallite (KMgCl3 · 6H2O), and sylvite (KCl). It is amember of the halogen (salt-forming) group of elements and is obtained from chlorides by the action of oxidizing agents and more often by electrolysis;it is a greenish-yellow gas, combining directly with nearly all elements. At 10°C one volume of water dissolves 3.10 volumes of chlorine, at 30°C only1.77 volumes. Chlorine is widely used in making many everyday products. It is used for producing safe drinking water the world over. Even the smallestwater supplies are now usually chlorinated. It is also extensively used in the production of paper products, dyestuffs, textiles, petroleum products,medicines, antiseptics, insecticides, foodstuffs, solvents, paints, plastics, and many other consumer products. Most of the chlorine produced is usedin the manufacture of chlorinated compounds for sanitation, pulp bleaching, disinfectants, and textile processing. Further use is in the manufactureof chlorates, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and in the extraction of bromine. Organic chemistry demands much from chlorine, both as an oxidizingagent and in substitution, since it often brings desired properties in an organic compound when substituted for hydrogen, as in one form of syntheticrubber. Chlorine is a respiratory irritant. The gas irritates the mucous membranes and the liquid burns the skin. As little as 3.5 ppm can be detectedas an odor, and 1000 ppm is likely to be fatal after a few deep breaths. It was used as a war gas in 1915. Natural chlorine contains two isotopes. Sixteenother isotopes and isomers are known. 1

• "[used] in drinking water and swimming pools because chlorine is used to disinfect water...Soon after the war [World War I], however, chlorine became the premier disinfectant, controlling deadly diseases such as typhoid fever that were being spread by polluted drinking water." 2
• "received notoreity during World War I when it was used as a war gas." 3
• "Its greatest commercial use, however, is in the preparation of chlorinated organic compounds, including plastics such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), for bottles and packaging film." 4
• "One of the most important uses for chlorine is as a bleaching agent, especially for cotton cloth...Moist chlorine is a good disinfectant, because it reacts as an oxidizing agent with protein material and kills microscopic organisms, including disease germs...Chlorine is also added to city water to kill germs. Swimming pools are kept sanitary by means of chlorine. A little chlorine added to the discharge from sewage disposal plants renders it harmless...Chlorine is used for paper pulp bleaching, water purification, textile bleaching, de-tinning and de-zincing, chlorinating and for making chlorinated hydrocarbons. Other important uses include the manufacture of carbon tetrachloride...chloroform...sulfur chloride...and many organic compounds used in dyes and medicines...Chlorine is also used for treating petroleum to make many non-inflammable materials used as solvents and cleaning fluids. Some processes for the extraction of metals from ores use chlorine." 5
• "used to produce many commercially important products. Tremendous amounts of it are used in extractive metallurgy and in chlorinating hydrocarbons to produce a variety of compounds (such as polyvinyl chloride, a plastic). Chlorine is present as Cl2, NaClO, Ca(ClO)2, or Ca(ClO)Cl in household bleaches as well as bleaches for wood pulp and textiles. Under carefully controlled conditions, Cl2 is used to kill bacteria in public water supplies." 6
• "10th most produced chemical in the United States in 1995 - 11.0 megatonnes." 7
• "8th most produced chemical in the United States - 21.93 billion pounds" 8
• "Disinfection [in chemical water analysis]" 9

물리적 특성

밀도:10  2.898 g/L

* - at 1 atm

전자 구성

전자 구성: [Ne] 3s2 3p5
블록: p
최고 점유 에너지 레벨: 3
원자가 전자를: 7

양자 번호:

n = 3
ℓ = 1
m = 0
ms = -½

본딩

전기 음성도 (폴링 규모):11 3.16
Electropositivity (폴링 규모): 0.84
전자 친화도:12 3.612724 eV
산화 미국: -1

이온화 전위   eV 13  kJ/mol  
1 12.96764    1251.2
2 23.814    2297.7
3 39.61    3821.8
4 53.4652    5158.6
5 67.8    6541.7
이온화 전위   eV 13  kJ/mol  
6 97.03    9362.0
7 114.1958    11018.2
8 348.28    33603.9
9 400.06    38599.9
10 455.63    43961.6
11 529.28    51067.7
이온화 전위   eV 13  kJ/mol  
12 591.99    57118.3
13 656.71    63362.9
14 749.76    72340.8
15 809.4    78095.2
16 3658.521    352993.5
17 3946.296    380759.6

열화학

비열: 0.479 J/g°C 14 = 16.982 J/mol°C = 0.114 cal/g°C = 4.059 cal/mol°C
열 전도성: 0.0089 (W/m)/K, 27°C 15
퓨전의 열: 3.23 kJ/mol 16 = 91.1 J/g
기화의 열: 10.2 kJ/mol 17 = 287.7 J/g
물질의 상태 형성의 엔탈피 (ΔHf°)18 엔트로피 (S°)18 깁스 자유 에너지 (ΔGf°)18
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(g) 0 0 53.29 222.96536 0 0

동위 원소

핵종 질량 19 하프 라이프 19 핵 스핀 19 에너지 바인딩
28Cl 28.02851(54)# (1+)# 186.61 MeV
29Cl 29.01411(21)# <20 ns (3/2+)# 207.73 MeV
30Cl 30.00477(21)# <30 ns (3+)# 225.11 MeV
31Cl 30.99241(5) 150(25) ms 3/2+ 244.36 MeV
32Cl 31.985690(7) 298(1) ms 1+ 258.95 MeV
33Cl 32.9774519(5) 2.511(3) s 3/2+ 274.48 MeV
34Cl 33.97376282(19) 1.5264(14) s 0+ 286.27 MeV
35Cl 34.96885268(4) 안정된 3/2+ 299.00 MeV
36Cl 35.96830698(8) 3.01(2)E+5 a 2+ 307.07 MeV
37Cl 36.96590259(5) 안정된 3/2+ 317.94 MeV
38Cl 37.96801043(10) 37.24(5) min 2- 323.22 MeV
39Cl 38.9680082(19) 55.6(2) min 3/2+ 331.29 MeV
40Cl 39.97042(3) 1.35(2) min 2- 337.50 MeV
41Cl 40.97068(7) 38.4(8) s (1/2+,3/2+) 345.57 MeV
42Cl 41.97325(15) 6.8(3) s 350.85 MeV
43Cl 42.97405(17) 3.07(7) s 3/2+# 357.99 MeV
44Cl 43.97828(12) 0.56(11) s 362.33 MeV
45Cl 44.98029(13) 400(40) ms 3/2+# 368.54 MeV
46Cl 45.98421(77) 232(2) ms 372.88 MeV
47Cl 46.98871(64)# 101(6) ms 3/2+# 377.23 MeV
48Cl 47.99495(75)# 100# ms [>200 ns] 379.71 MeV
49Cl 49.00032(86)# 50# ms [>200 ns] 3/2+# 382.19 MeV
50Cl 50.00784(97)# 20# ms 383.75 MeV
51Cl 51.01449(107)# 2# ms [>200 ns] 3/2+# 385.30 MeV
값은 # 순수 실험 데이터에서 유래하지만, 적어도 부분적으로 체계적인 동향에서되지 않습니다 표시. 약한 할당 인수는 괄호로 묶와 함께 회전합니다. 19

반응

2 Al (s) + 3 Cl2 (g) → 2 AlCl3 (s) 20
Al2O3 + 3 C + 3 Cl2 → 2 AlCl3 + 3 CO  21
2 AlCl3 (ℓ) → 2 Al (s) + 3 Cl2 (g) 21
Br2 (ℓ) + 2 NH4Cl (aq) → 2 NH4Br (aq) + Cl2 (g) 
2 BrCl (g) → Br2 (g) + Cl2 (g) 
CH4 (g methane) + 4 Cl2 (g) → CCl4 (ℓ) + 4 HCl (g) 22
CH4 (g methane) + 1 Cl2 (g) → CH3Cl (g) + HCl (g) 23
2 Cr (s) + 3 Cl2 (g) → 2 CrCl3 (s) 24
CS2 (ℓ) + 3 Cl2 (g) → S2Cl2 (g) + CCl4 (g) 25
F2 (g) + 2 KCl (aq) → 2 KF (aq) + Cl2 (g) 
2 Fe (s alpha) + 3 Cl2 (g) → 2 FeCl3 (s) 26
H2 (g) + 1 Cl2 (g) → 2 HCl (g) 
4 HCl (aq) + 1 MnO2 (s) → 2 H2O (ℓ) + MnCl2 (aq) + 1 Cl2 (g) 27
2 KBr (aq) + 1 Cl2 (g) → 2 KCl (aq) + Br2 (aq) 28
2 Na (s) + 1 Cl2 (g) → 2 NaCl (s) 29
2 NaCl (ℓ) → 2 Na (ℓ) + Cl2 (g) 30
2 NaCl (aq) + 2 H2O (ℓ) → H2 (g) + Cl2 (g) + 2 NaOH (aq) 31
2 NaI (aq) + 1 Cl2 (g) → 2 NaCl (aq) + I2 (aq) 32
P4 (s) + 6 Cl2 (g) → 4 PCl3 (ℓ) 33
P4 (s) + 10 Cl2 (g) → 4 PCl5 (s) 33
PCl3 (ℓ) + 1 Cl2 (g) → PCl5 (s) 33
PCl5 (g) → PCl3 (g) + Cl2 (g) 34
S8 (ℓ) + 4 Cl2 (g) → 4 S2Cl2 (ℓ) 35
2 Sb (s) + 3 Cl2 (g) → 2 SbCl3 (s) 36
SbCl3 (s) + 1 Cl2 (g) → SbCl5 (s) 36
SiCl4 (g) + 1 O2 (g) → SiO2 (s quartz) + 2 Cl2 (g) 37
SiO2 (g) + 2 C (s graphite) + 2 Cl2 (g) → SiCl4 (g) + 2 CO (g) 38
TiCl4 (g) + 1 O2 (g) → TiO2 (s rutile) + 2 Cl2 (g) 39
2 TiO2 (s rutile) + 3 C (s graphite) + 4 Cl2 (g) → 2 TiCl4 (g) + CO2 (g) + 2 CO (g) 40
TiO2 (s rutile) + 1 C (s graphite) + 2 Cl2 (g) → TiCl4 (g) + CO2 (g) 41
2 As (s) + 3 Cl2 (g) → 2 AsCl3 (ℓ) 42
2 La (s) + 3 Cl2 (g) → 2 LaCl3 (s) 
2 Dy (s) + 3 Cl2 (g) → 2 DyCl3 (s) 
2 I2 (s) + 5 Cl2 (g) + 6 H2O (ℓ) → 2 HIO3 (aq) + 10 HCl (aq) 
3 Cl2 (g) + 5 AgNO3 (aq) + 3 H2O (ℓ) → HClO3 (aq) + 5 HNO3 (aq) + 5 AgCl (s) 

풍부

지구 - 소스 화합물: halide salts or brines 43
지구 - 해수: 19400 mg/L 44
지구 -  빵 껍질:  145 mg/kg = 0.0145% 44
지구 -  암석권:  0.013% 45
지구 -  수계:  2.1% 45
지구 -  합계:  19.9 ppm 46
수성 (행성) -  합계:  0.23 ppm 46
금성 -  합계:  20.9 ppm 46
구립 운석 - 합계: 700 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 47
인간의 몸 - 합계: 0.12% 48

화합물

(2-chloroethyl) trimethylammonium chloride
1,1-dichloroethane; ethylidene dichloride; ethylidene chloride
1-chloropropane*; n-propyl chloride; chloromethylethane
1-naphthoyl chloride; 1-naphthalenecarboxylic acid chloride; 1-naphthalenecarbonyl chloride
2-chlorobutane; sec-butyl chloride
3,5-dinitrobenzoyl chloride
4-chloro-3-nitrobenzoyl chloride
4-chlorobenzoyl chloride
acetyl chloride*; ethanoyl chloride
acetylcholine chloride
acridine orange/zinc chloride complex; N,N,N**,N**-tetramethylacridine-3,6-diamine monohydrochloride, compound with zinc dichloride; 3,6-acridinediamine with zinc chloride
adipoyl chloride
allyl chloride; 3-chloropropene*
allylpaladium chloride dimer
aluminum chloride hexahydrate; aluminium chloride hexahydrate
aluminum chloride; aluminium chloride
ammoniated mercuric chloride
ammonium chloride
barium chloride
barium chloride dihydrate
benzenesulfonyl chloride
benzoyl chloride
benzyl chloride; chloromethylbenzene
berkelium(III) chloride
beryllium chloride
bismuth(III) chloride
butyryl chloride; butanoyl chloride; n-butyryl chloride
cadmium chloride
cadmium chloride hemipentahydrate
calcium chloride
calcium chloride dihydrate
calcium chloride hexahydrate
californium(II) chloride
californium(III) chloride
cerium(III) chloride, anhydrous
cesium chloride; caesium chloride
chlorine dioxide
chlorine monofluoride
chlorine pentafluoride
chlorine perchlorate
chlorine trifluoride
chloroacetone; chloropropanone; acetonyl chloride
chromium(II) chloride; chromous chloride
chromium(III) chloride hexahydrate; chromic chloride hexahydrate
chromium(III) chloride; chromic chloride
chromium(IV) chloride
cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate; cobalt dichloride hexahydrate
cobalt(II) chloride; cobalt dichloride
cobalt(III) chloride; cobalt trichloride
copper(I) chloride; cuprous chloride
copper(II) chloride dihydrate; cupric chloride dihydrate
copper(II) chloride; cupric chloride
crystal violet; tris(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)methylium chloride
curium(III) chloride
cyanogen chloride
disulfuryl chloride
dysprosium(II) chloride
dysprosium(III) chloride
einsteinium(II) chloride
einsteinium(III) chloride
erbium(III) chloride
erbium(III) chloride hexahydrate
europium(II) chloride
europium(III) chloride
gadolinium(III) chloride
gadolinium(III) chloride hexahydrate
gallium(III) chloride
germanium(II) chloride
germanium(IV) chloride
gold(I) chloride
gold(I, III) chloride
gold(III) chloride; gold trichloride
hafnium chloride
hexamminecobalt(III) chloride
holmium chloride
hydrochloric acid; hydrogen chloride
hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(III) trihydrate; hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III); auric chloride hydrochloride trihydrate
indium(I) chloride; indium monochloride
indium(II) chloride; indium dichloride
indium(III) chloride
iridium(II) chloride
iridium(III) chloride; iridium trichloride
iridium(IV) chloride; iridium tetrachloride
iron(II) chloride dihydrate; ferrous chloride dihydrate
iron(II) chloride tetrahydrate; ferrous chloride tetrahydrate
iron(II) chloride; ferrous chloride
iron(III) chloride hexahydrate; ferric chloride hexahydrate
iron(III) chloride; ferric chloride
isophthaloyl chloride; 1,3-benzenedicarbonyldichloride
lanthanum chloride
lanthanum chloride heptahydrate
lanthanum chloride trihydrate
lead(II) chloride
lead(IV) chloride; lead tetrachloride
lithium chloride
lithium chloride monohydrate
lutetium chloride
magnesium chloride
magnesium chloride hexahydrate
manganese(II) chloride
manganese(II) chloride tetrahydrate
mercury(I) chloride; mercurous chloride
mercury(II) chloride
methyl chloride; chloromethane*
methylene chloride; dichloromethane*
molybdenum(II) chloride; molybdenum dichloride
molybdenum(III) chloride
molybdenum(IV) chloride
molybdenum(V) chloride
molybdenum(VI) chloride
neodymium(II) chloride
neodymium(III) chloride; neodymium trichloride
neptunium(III) chloride
neptunium(IV) chloride
nickel(II) chloride
nickel(II) chloride hexahydrate
niobium(III) chloride
niobium(IV) chloride
niobium(V) chloride
nitrogen oxychloride; nitrosyl chloride; nitrosonium chloride
osmium(III) chloride
osmium(III) chloride trihydrate
osmium(IV) chloride
osmium(V) chloride
palladium(II) chloride
p-anisoyl chloride; 4-methoxybenzoyl chloride
p-chlorobenzyl chloride
phenylacetyl chloride
phosgene; carbonyl dichloride*; CG; carbon dichloride oxide; carbon oxychloride; Chloroformyl chloride; dichloroformaldehyde; dichloromethanone
phosphorus pentachloride*; phosphorus(V) chloride; pentachlorophosphorane
platinum(II) chloride
platinum(III) chloride; platinum trichloride
platinum(IV) chloride; platinum tetrachloride
platium(IV) chloride pentaahydrate
plutonium(III) chloride
p-nitrobenzyl chloride
potassium chloride
potassium tetrachloropallidate; potassium palladium chloride
praseodymium(III) chloride
promethium(III) chloride
protactinium(IV) chloride
protactinium(V) chloride
p-toluenesulfonyl chloride; tosyl chloride
radium chloride
rhenium(III) chloride
rhenium(IV) chloride
rhenium(V) chloride
rhenium(VI) chloride
rhodium(III) chloride; rhodium trichloride
rubidium chloride
ruthenium(II) chloride
ruthenium(III) chloride
samarium(II) chloride
samarium(III) chloride
scandium(III) chloride
selenium chloride
silver chloride
sodium chloride
strontium chloride
strontium chloride dihydrate
strontium chloride hexahydrate
sulfuryl chloride*; sulfonyl chloride; sulfuric chloride
tantalum(III) chloride
tantalum(IV) chloride
tantalum(V) chloride
technetium(IV) chloride
technetium(VI) chloride
terbium chloride; terbium (III) chloride
tetraheptylammonium chloride
thallium(I) chloride; thallous chloride
thallium(II) chloride
thallium(III) chloride
thionyl chloride; sulfurous dichloride; sulfur monoxide dichloride
thiophosgene; thiocarbonyl chloride; carbonothioic dichloride
thorium(IV) chloride
thulium(II) chloride
thulium(II) chloride heptahydrate
thulium(III) chloride
tin(II) chloride dihydrate; stannous chloride dihydrate
tin(II) chloride; stannous chloride
tin(IV) chloride
tin(IV) chloride pentahydrate
titanium(II) chloride
titanium(III) chloride
titanium(IV) chloride
trimellitic anhydride acid chloride
tungsten(II) chloride
tungsten(III) chloride
tungsten(IV) chloride
tungsten(V) chloride
tungsten(VI) chloride
uranium(III) chloride
uranium(IV) chloride
uranium(V) chloride
uranium(VI) chloride
valeryl chloride; pentanoyl chloride
vanadium(II) chloride
vanadium(III) chloride
vanadium(IV) chloride
vinyl chloride
ytterbium(II) chloride
ytterbium(III) chloride
ytterbium(III) chloride hexahydrate
ytterbium(III) chloride hexahydrate
yttrium(III) chloride
zinc chloride
zirconium chloride hydroxide
zirconium(II) chloride
zirconium(IV) chloride; zirconium tetrachloride

안전 정보


물질 안전 보건 자료 - ACI Alloys, Inc.

자세한 내용은

외부 링크:

소스

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