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소개

원자 번호: 48
그룹: 12 or II B
원자 무게: 112.411
기간: 5
CAS 번호: 7440-43-9

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고체 (예상)

기술 • 용도 / 기능

Discovered by Stromeyer in 1817 from an impurity in zinc carbonate. Cadmium most often occurs in small quantitiesassociated with zinc ores, such as sphalerite (ZnS). Greenockite (CdS) is the only mineral of any consequence bearing cadmium. Almost all cadmiumis obtained as a by-product in the treatment of zinc, copper, and lead ores. It is a soft, bluish-white metal which is easily cut with a knife. It is similarin many respects to zinc. It is a component of some of the lowest melting alloys; it is used in bearing alloys with low coefficients of friction and greatresistance to fatigue; it is used extensively in electroplating, which accounts for about 60% of its use. It is also used in many types of solder, for standardE.M.F. cells, for Ni-Cd batteries, and as a barrier to control atomic fission. Cadmium compounds are used in black and white television phosphorsand in blue and green phosphors for color TV tubes. It forms a number of salts, of which the sulfate is most common; the sulfide is used as a yellowpigment. Cadmium and solutions of its compounds are toxic. Failure to appreciate the toxic properties of cadmium may cause workers to be unwittinglyexposed to dangerous fumes. Some silver solders, for example, contain cadmium and should be handled with care. Serious toxicity problems have beenfound from long-term exposure and work with cadmium plating baths. In 1927 the International Conference on Weights and Measures redefined themeter in terms of the wavelength of the red cadmium spectral line (i.e. 1 m = 1,553,164.13 wavelengths). This definition has been changed (see underKrypton). The current price of cadmium is about $100/kg (99.5%). It is available in high purity form for about $300/kg. Natural cadmium is madeof eight isotopes. Thirty four other isotopes and isomers are now known and recognized. 1

• "Cadmium is most commonly seen as a whitish metallic protective coat, usually with a soft finish. Most of the metal produced is used in alloys that melt easily. It is also used in the cadmium storage battery." 2

물리적 특성

녹는 점:3*  321.07 °C = 594.22 K = 609.926 °F
비점:3* 767 °C = 1040.15 K = 1412.6 °F
승화 포인트:3 
트리플 포인트:3 
중요 포인트:3 
밀도:4  8.69 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

전자 구성

전자 구성: [Kr] 5s2 4d10
블록: d
최고 점유 에너지 레벨: 5
원자가 전자를: 

양자 번호:

n = 4
ℓ = 2
m = 2
ms = -½

본딩

전기 음성도 (폴링 규모):5 1.69
Electropositivity (폴링 규모): 2.31
전자 친화도:6 not stable eV
산화 미국: +2
작업 기능:7 4.12 eV = 6.60024E-19 J

이온화 전위   eV 8  kJ/mol  
1 8.9938    867.8
이온화 전위   eV 8  kJ/mol  
2 16.90832    1631.4
이온화 전위   eV 8  kJ/mol  
3 37.48    3616.3

열화학

비열: 0.232 J/g°C 9 = 26.079 J/mol°C = 0.055 cal/g°C = 6.233 cal/mol°C
열 전도성: 96.8 (W/m)/K, 27°C 10
퓨전의 열: 6.192 kJ/mol 11 = 55.1 J/g
기화의 열: 99.57 kJ/mol 12 = 885.8 J/g
물질의 상태 형성의 엔탈피 (ΔHf°)13 엔트로피 (S°)13 깁스 자유 에너지 (ΔGf°)13
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s gamma) 0 0 12.37 51.75608 0 0
(s alpha) -0.14 -0.58576 12.37 51.75608 -0.14 -0.58576
(g) 26.77 112.00568 40.066 167.636144 18.51 77.44584

동위 원소

핵종 질량 14 하프 라이프 14 핵 스핀 14 에너지 바인딩
100Cd 99.92029(10) 49.1(5) s 0+ 844.10 MeV
101Cd 100.91868(16) 1.36(5) min (5/2+) 861.48 MeV
102Cd 101.91446(3) 5.5(5) min 0+ 869.55 MeV
103Cd 102.913419(17) 7.3(1) min 5/2+ 877.63 MeV
104Cd 103.909849(10) 57.7(10) min 0+ 895.01 MeV
105Cd 104.909468(12) 55.5(4) min 5/2+ 903.08 MeV
106Cd 105.906459(6) 안정된 0+ 911.16 MeV
107Cd 106.906618(6) 6.50(2) h 5/2+ 919.23 MeV
108Cd 107.904184(6) 안정된 0+ 927.30 MeV
109Cd 108.904982(4) 461.4(12) d 5/2+ 935.37 MeV
110Cd 109.9030021(29) 안정된 0+ 943.44 MeV
111Cd 110.9041781(29) 안정된 1/2+ 951.51 MeV
112Cd 111.9027578(29) 안정된 0+ 959.58 MeV
113Cd 112.9044017(29) 7.7(3)E+15 a 1/2+ 967.65 MeV
114Cd 113.9033585(29) 안정된 0+ 975.73 MeV
115Cd 114.9054310(29) 53.46(5) h 1/2+ 983.80 MeV
116Cd 115.904756(3) 3.1(4)E+19 a 0+ 991.87 MeV
117Cd 116.907219(4) 2.49(4) h 1/2+ 999.94 MeV
118Cd 117.906915(22) 50.3(2) min 0+ 1,008.01 MeV
119Cd 118.90992(9) 2.69(2) min (3/2+) 1,016.08 MeV
120Cd 119.90985(2) 50.80(21) s 0+ 1,024.15 MeV
121Cd 120.91298(9) 13.5(3) s (3/2+) 1,022.91 MeV
122Cd 121.91333(5) 5.24(3) s 0+ 1,030.98 MeV
123Cd 122.91700(4) 2.10(2) s (3/2)+ 1,039.05 MeV
124Cd 123.91765(7) 1.25(2) s 0+ 1,047.12 MeV
125Cd 124.92125(7) 0.65(2) s (3/2+)# 1,045.88 MeV
126Cd 125.92235(6) 0.515(17) s 0+ 1,053.95 MeV
127Cd 126.92644(8) 0.37(7) s (3/2+) 1,062.02 MeV
128Cd 127.92776(32) 0.28(4) s 0+ 1,070.09 MeV
129Cd 128.93215(32)# 242(8) ms 3/2+# 1,068.85 MeV
130Cd 129.9339(3) 162(7) ms 0+ 1,076.92 MeV
131Cd 130.94067(32)# 68(3) ms 7/2-# 1,075.68 MeV
132Cd 131.94555(54)# 97(10) ms 0+ 1,083.75 MeV
95Cd 94.94987(64)# 5# ms 9/2+# 776.73 MeV
96Cd 95.93977(54)# 1# s 0+ 794.11 MeV
97Cd 96.93494(43)# 2.8(6) s 9/2+# 806.84 MeV
98Cd 97.92740(8) 9.2(3) s 0+ 821.43 MeV
99Cd 98.92501(22)# 16(3) s (5/2+) 831.37 MeV
값은 # 순수 실험 데이터에서 유래하지만, 적어도 부분적으로 체계적인 동향에서되지 않습니다 표시. 약한 할당 인수는 괄호로 묶와 함께 회전합니다. 14

반응

풍부

지구 - 소스 화합물: sulfides 15
지구 - 해수: 0.00011 mg/L 16
지구 -  빵 껍질:  0.15 mg/kg = 0.000015% 16
지구 -  합계:  16.4 ppb 17
수성 (행성) -  합계:  0.19 ppb 17
금성 -  합계:  17.2 ppb 17
구립 운석 - 합계: 0.079 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 18
인간의 몸 - 합계: 0.00007% 19

화합물

물가





안전 정보


물질 안전 보건 자료 - ACI Alloys, Inc.

자세한 내용은

외부 링크:

저널:
(1) Nawrot et al., Environ. Health Perspect. 116, 1620-1628 (2008)
(2) Järup, Alfvén, Persson, Toss and Elinder, Occup. Environ. Med.  55, 435-439 (1998)
(3) Kao, Hsieh, Cheng and Huang, J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 54, 1118-1126 (1982)
(4) Gunnar F. Nordberg, Ambio 3, 55-66 (1974)
(5) Viaene et al., Occup. Environ. Med.  57, 19-27 (2000)

소스

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:6-4:7.
(2) - Brownlee, Raymond B., Fuller, Robert W., and Whitsit, Jesse E. Elements of Chemistry; Allyn and Bacon: Boston, Massachusetts, 1959; p 560.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(5) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(7) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(13) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(14) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(15) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(16) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(17) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(18) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.
(19) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 7:17.