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소개

원자 번호: 83
그룹: 15 or V A
원자 무게: 208.98038
기간: 6
CAS 번호: 7440-69-9

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고체 (예상)

기술 • 용도 / 기능

In early times bismuth was confused with tin and lead. Claude Geoffroy the Younger showed it to be distinct fromlead in 1753. It is a white crystalline, brittle metal with a pinkish tinge. It occurs native. The most important ores are bismuthinite or bismuth glance(Bi2S3) and bismite (Bi2O3). Peru, Japan, Mexico, Bolivia, and Canada are major bismuth producers. Much of the bismuth produced in the U.S. isobtained as a by-product in refining lead, copper, tin, silver, and gold ores. Bismuth is the most diamagnetic of all metals, and the thermal conductivityis lower than any metal, except mercury. It has a high electrical resistance, and has the highest Hall effect of any metal (i.e., greatest increase in electricalresistance when placed in a magnetic field). “Bismanol” is a permanent magnet of high coercive force, made of MnBi, by the U.S. Naval SurfaceWeapons Center. Bismuth expands 3.32% on solidification. This property makes bismuth alloys particularly suited to the making of sharp castingsof objects subject to damage by high temperatures. With other metals such as tin, cadmium, etc., bismuth forms low-melting alloys which areextensively used for safety devices in fire detection and extinguishing systems. Bismuth is used in producing malleable irons and is finding use as acatalyst for making acrylic fibers. When bismuth is heated in air it burns with a blue flame, forming yellow fumes of the oxide. The metal is also usedas a thermocouple material, and has found application as a carrier for U235 or U233 fuel in atomic reactors. Its soluble salts are characterized by forminginsoluble basic salts on the addition of water, a property sometimes used in detection work. Bismuth oxychloride is used extensively in cosmetics.Bismuth subnitrate and subcarbonate are used in medicine. Natural bismuth contains only one isotope 209Bi. Forty one isotopes and isomers of bismuthare known. Bismuth metal costs about $90/kg (99.999%). 1

물리적 특성

녹는 점:2*  271.40 °C = 544.55 K = 520.52 °F
비점:2* 1564 °C = 1837.15 K = 2847.2 °F
승화 포인트:2 
트리플 포인트:2 
중요 포인트:2 
밀도:3  9.79 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

전자 구성

전자 구성: [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p3
블록: p
최고 점유 에너지 레벨: 6
원자가 전자를: 5

양자 번호:

n = 6
ℓ = 1
m = 1
ms = +½

본딩

전기 음성도 (폴링 규모):4 1.9
Electropositivity (폴링 규모): 2.1
전자 친화도:5 0.946 eV
산화 미국: +3,5
작업 기능:6 4.36 eV = 6.98472E-19 J

이온화 전위   eV 7  kJ/mol  
1 7.2856    703.0
2 16.69    1610.3
이온화 전위   eV 7  kJ/mol  
3 25.56    2466.2
4 45.3    4370.8
이온화 전위   eV 7  kJ/mol  
5 56    5403.2
6 88.3    8519.7

열화학

비열: 0.122 J/g°C 8 = 25.496 J/mol°C = 0.029 cal/g°C = 6.094 cal/mol°C
열 전도성: 7.87 (W/m)/K, 27°C 9
퓨전의 열: 11.3 kJ/mol 10 = 54.1 J/g
기화의 열: 104.8 kJ/mol 11 = 501.5 J/g
물질의 상태 형성의 엔탈피 (ΔHf°)12 엔트로피 (S°)12 깁스 자유 에너지 (ΔGf°)12
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 13.56 56.73504 0 0
(g) 49.5 207.108 44.67 186.89928 40.2 168.1968

동위 원소

핵종 질량 13 하프 라이프 13 핵 스핀 13 에너지 바인딩
184Bi 184.00112(14)# 6.6(15) ms 3+# 1,420.19 MeV
185Bi 184.99763(6)# 2# ms 9/2-# 1,437.57 MeV
186Bi 185.99660(8) 14.8(7) ms (3+) 1,445.64 MeV
187Bi 186.993158(16) 32(3) ms 9/2-# 1,453.71 MeV
188Bi 187.99227(5) 44(3) ms 3+# 1,461.79 MeV
189Bi 188.98920(6) 674(11) ms (9/2-) 1,479.17 MeV
190Bi 189.9883(2) 6.3(1) s (3+) 1,487.24 MeV
191Bi 190.985786(8) 12.3(3) s (9/2-) 1,495.31 MeV
192Bi 191.98546(4) 34.6(9) s (3+) 1,503.39 MeV
193Bi 192.98296(1) 67(3) s (9/2-) 1,511.46 MeV
194Bi 193.98283(5) 95(3) s (3+) 1,519.53 MeV
195Bi 194.980651(6) 183(4) s (9/2-) 1,527.60 MeV
196Bi 195.980667(26) 5.1(2) min (3+) 1,535.67 MeV
197Bi 196.978864(9) 9.33(50) min (9/2-) 1,553.06 MeV
198Bi 197.97921(3) 10.3(3) min (2+,3+) 1,561.13 MeV
199Bi 198.977672(13) 27(1) min 9/2- 1,569.20 MeV
200Bi 199.978132(26) 36.4(5) min 7+ 1,577.27 MeV
201Bi 200.977009(16) 108(3) min 9/2- 1,585.34 MeV
202Bi 201.977742(22) 1.72(5) h 5(+#) 1,593.41 MeV
203Bi 202.976876(23) 11.76(5) h 9/2- 1,601.49 MeV
204Bi 203.977813(28) 11.22(10) h 6+ 1,609.56 MeV
205Bi 204.977389(8) 15.31(4) d 9/2- 1,617.63 MeV
206Bi 205.978499(8) 6.243(3) d 6(+) 1,625.70 MeV
207Bi 206.9784707(26) 32.9(14) a 9/2- 1,633.77 MeV
208Bi 207.9797422(25) 3.68(4)E+5 a (5)+ 1,641.84 MeV
209Bi 208.9803987(16) 1.9(2)E+19 a 9/2- 1,640.60 MeV
210Bi 209.9841204(16) 5.012(5) d 1- 1,648.67 MeV
211Bi 210.987269(6) 2.14(2) min 9/2- 1,656.74 MeV
212Bi 211.9912857(21) 60.55(6) min 1(-) 1,655.50 MeV
213Bi 212.994385(5) 45.59(6) min 9/2- 1,663.57 MeV
214Bi 213.998712(12) 19.9(4) min 1- 1,671.64 MeV
215Bi 215.001770(16) 7.6(2) min (9/2-) 1,670.40 MeV
216Bi 216.006306(12) 2.17(5) min 1-# 1,678.47 MeV
217Bi 217.00947(21)# 98.5(8) s 9/2-# 1,686.54 MeV
218Bi 218.01432(39)# 33(1) s 1-# 1,685.30 MeV
값은 # 순수 실험 데이터에서 유래하지만, 적어도 부분적으로 체계적인 동향에서되지 않습니다 표시. 약한 할당 인수는 괄호로 묶와 함께 회전합니다. 13

반응

풍부

지구 - 소스 화합물: sulfides 15
지구 - 해수: 0.00002 mg/L 16
지구 -  빵 껍질:  0.0085 mg/kg = 0.00000085% 16
지구 -  합계:  2.94 ppb 17
수성 (행성) -  합계:  0.034 ppb 17
금성 -  합계:  3.08 ppb 17
구립 운석 - 합계: 0.002 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 18

화합물

물가





안전 정보


물질 안전 보건 자료 - ACI Alloys, Inc.

자세한 내용은

외부 링크:

소스

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:5-4:6.
(2) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(4) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(6) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(12) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(13) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(14) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill: Boston, MA, 2006; p 128.
(15) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(16) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(17) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(18) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.