VANADIO

introduzione

Numero atomico: 23
Gruppo: 5 or V B
Peso atomico: 50.9415
Periodo: 4
Numero CAS: 7440-62-2

Classificazione

Metallo
Metalloide
simile a metallo
metallo alcalino
Alkali terroso
Metallo di transizione
calcogeno
alogena
Gas nobile
Lanthanoid
Actinoid
Terre rare
Platinum Metal Group
transuranici
Non ci sono isotopi stabili
Solido
Liquido
Gas
Solido (previsto)

Descrizione • Usi / Funzione

Vanadium was first discovered by del Rio in 1801. Unfortunately, a French chemist incorrectly declared del Rio’s new element was onlyimpure chromium; del Rio thought himself to be mistaken and accepted the French chemist’s statement. The element was rediscovered in 1830 bySefstrom, who named the element in honor of the Scandinavian goddess Vanadis because of its beautiful multicolored compounds. It was isolated innearly pure form by Roscoe, in 1867, who reduced the chloride with hydrogen. Vanadium of 99.3 to 99.8% purity was not produced until 1927.Vanadium is found in about 65 different minerals among which are carnotite, roscoelite, vanadinite, and patronite important sources of the metal.Vanadium is also found in phosphate rock and certain iron ores, and is present in some crude oils in the form of organic complexes. It is also foundin small percentages in meteorites. Commercial production from petroleum ash holds promise as an important source of the element. High-purityductile vanadium can be obtained by reduction of vanadium trichloride with magnesium or with magnesium-sodium mixtures. Much of the vanadiummetal being produced is now made by calcium reduction of V2O5 in a pressure vessel, an adaption of a process developed by McKechnie and Seybolt.Natural vanadium is a mixture of two isotopes, 50V (0.25%) and 51V (99.75%). 50V is slightly radioactive, having a long half-life. Seventeen otherunstable isotopes are recognized. Pure vanadium is a bright white metal, and is soft and ductile. It has good corrosion resistance to alkalis, sulfuricand hydrochloric acid, and salt water, but the metal oxidizes readily above 660°C. The metal has good structural strength and a low fission neutroncross section, making it useful in nuclear applications. Vanadium is used in producing rust resistant, spring, and highspeed tool steels. It is an importantcarbide stabilizer in making steels. About 80% of the vanadium now produced is used as ferrovanadium or as a steel additive. Vanadium foil is usedas a bonding agent in cladding titanium to steel. Vanadium pentoxide is used in ceramics and as a catalyst. It is also used in producing a superconductivemagnet with a field of 175,000 gauss. Vanadium and its compounds are toxic and should be handled with care. Ductile vanadium is commerciallyavailable. Commercial vanadium metal, of about 95% purity, costs about $50kg. Vanadium metal (99.7%) costs about $1.50/g or $700/kg. 1

• "Vanadium gives steel the ability to resist breakage under heavy shocks, and permits steel springs to be bent countless times without losing their elasticity." 2
• "A number of transition metals (Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W) form interstitial carbides of composition MC and, in some cases, M2C. These carbides have extremely high melting points; they are very hard, and they are good electrical conductors." 3

Proprietà fisiche

Punto di fusione:4*  1910 °C = 2183.15 K = 3470 °F
Punto di ebollizione:4* 3407 °C = 3680.15 K = 6164.6 °F
sublimazione Point:4 
Triple Point:4 
Punto critico:4 
Densità:5  6.0 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

configurazione elettronica

configurazione elettronica: [Ar] 4s2 3d3
Bloccare: d
Più alto livello di energia Occupato: 4
Elettroni di valenza: 

numeri quantici:

n = 3
ℓ = 2
m = 0
ms = +½

bonding

elettronegatività (scala Pauling):6 1.63
Electropositivity (scala Pauling): 2.37
Affinità elettronica:7 0.525 eV
ossidazione Uniti: +5,2,3,4
Funzione di lavoro:8 4.44 eV = 7.11288E-19 J

potenziale di ionizzazione   eV 9  kJ/mol  
1 6.7462    650.9
2 14.66    1414.5
3 29.311    2828.1
4 46.709    4506.7
5 65.2817    6298.7
6 128.13    12362.7
7 150.6    14530.7
potenziale di ionizzazione   eV 9  kJ/mol  
8 173.4    16730.6
9 205.8    19856.7
10 230.5    22239.9
11 255.7    24671.3
12 308.1    29727.1
13 336.277    32445.8
14 896    86450.8
15 976    94169.7
potenziale di ionizzazione   eV 9  kJ/mol  
16 1060    102274.4
17 1168    112694.8
18 1260    121571.5
19 1355    130737.6
20 1486    143377.2
21 1569.6    151443.3
22 6851.3    661049.8
23 7246.12    699144.1

Termochimica

Calore specifico: 0.489 J/g°C 10 = 24.910 J/mol°C = 0.117 cal/g°C = 5.954 cal/mol°C
Conduttività termica: 30.7 (W/m)/K, 27°C 11
Calore di fusione: 20.9 kJ/mol 12 = 410.3 J/g
Calore di vaporizzazione: 0.452 kJ/mol 13 = 8.9 J/g
Stato della materia Entalpia di formazione (ΔHf°)14 entropia (S°)14 Energia libera di Gibbs (ΔGf°)14
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 6.91 28.91144 0 0
(g) 122.90 514.2136 43.544 182.188096 108.32 453.21088

isotopi

nuclide Massa 15 Metà vita 15 spin nucleare 15 Energia di legame
40V 40.01109(54)# 2-# 294.61 MeV
41V 40.99978(22)# 7/2-# 313.86 MeV
42V 41.99123(21)# <55 ns 2-# 329.38 MeV
43V 42.98065(25)# 80# ms 7/2-# 347.70 MeV
44V 43.97411(13) 111(7) ms (2+) 361.36 MeV
45V 44.965776(18) 547(6) ms 7/2- 377.82 MeV
46V 45.9602005(11) 422.50(11) ms 0+ 390.55 MeV
47V 46.9549089(9) 32.6(3) min 3/2- 404.21 MeV
48V 47.9522537(27) 15.9735(25) d 4+ 414.14 MeV
49V 48.9485161(12) 329(3) d 7/2- 425.94 MeV
50V 49.9471585(11) 1.4(4)E17 a 6+ 434.94 MeV
51V 50.9439595(11) STABILE 7/2- 446.74 MeV
52V 51.9447755(11) 3.743(5) min 3+ 453.88 MeV
53V 52.944338(3) 1.60(4) min 7/2- 461.95 MeV
54V 53.946440(16) 49.8(5) s 3+ 468.16 MeV
55V 54.94723(11) 6.54(15) s (7/2-)# 475.30 MeV
56V 55.95053(22) 216(4) ms (1+) 480.57 MeV
57V 56.95256(25) 0.35(1) s (3/2-) 486.78 MeV
58V 57.95683(27) 191(8) ms 3+# 491.13 MeV
59V 58.96021(33) 75(7) ms 7/2-# 495.47 MeV
60V 59.96503(51) 122(18) ms 3+# 498.89 MeV
61V 60.96848(43)# 47.0(12) ms 7/2-# 504.16 MeV
62V 61.97378(54)# 33.5(20) ms 3+# 507.58 MeV
63V 62.97755(64)# 17(3) ms (7/2-)# 511.92 MeV
64V 63.98347(75)# 10# ms [>300 ns] 514.41 MeV
65V 64.98792(86)# 10# ms 5/2-# 518.75 MeV
I valori assegnati # non sono puramente derivati ​​da dati sperimentali, ma almeno parzialmente da tendenze sistematiche. Gira con argomenti di assegnazione deboli sono racchiusi tra parentesi. 15

Abbondanza

Terra - composti di origine: oxides 16
Terra - L'acqua di mare: 0.0025 mg/L 17
Terra -  Crosta:  120 mg/kg = 0.012% 17
Terra -  Litosfera:  0.014% 18
Terra -  Totale:  82 ppm 19
Pianeta Mercurio) -  Totale:  63 ppm 19
Venere -  Totale:  86 ppm 19
condriti - Totale: 200 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 20

Composti

Informazioni sulla sicurezza


Scheda di sicurezza - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Per maggiori informazioni

Link esterno:

fonti

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:34.
(2) - Brownlee, Raymond B., Fuller, Robert W., and Whitsit, Jesse E. Elements of Chemistry; Allyn and Bacon: Boston, Massachusetts, 1959; p 560.
(3) - Jolly, William L. The Chemistry of the Non-Metals; Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1966; p 119.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(6) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(8) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(14) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(15) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(16) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(17) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(18) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 964.
(19) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(20) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.