LUTEZIO

introduzione

Numero atomico: 71
Gruppo: Nessuna
Peso atomico: 174.967
Periodo: 6
Numero CAS: 7439-94-3

Classificazione

Metallo
Metalloide
simile a metallo
metallo alcalino
Alkali terroso
Metallo di transizione
calcogeno
alogena
Gas nobile
Lanthanoid
Actinoid
Terre rare
Platinum Metal Group
transuranici
Non ci sono isotopi stabili
Solido
Liquido
Gas
Solido (previsto)

Descrizione • Usi / Funzione

In 1907, Urbain described a process by which Marignac’s ytterbium (1879) could be separated into thetwo elements, ytterbium (neoytterbium)and lutetium. These elements were identical with “aldebaranium” and “cassiopeium,” independentlydiscovered by von Welsbach about the same time. Charles James of the University of New Hampshire also independently prepared the very pure oxide,lutecia, at this time. The spelling of the element was changed from lutecium to lutetium in 1949. Lutetium occurs in very small amounts in nearly allminerals containing yttrium, and is present in monazite to the extent of about 0.003%, which is a commercial source. The pure metal has been isolatedonly in recent years and is one of the most difficult to prepare. It can be prepared by the reduction of anhydrous LuCl3 or Luf3 by an alkali or alkalineearth metal. The metal is silvery white and relatively stable in air. While new techniques, including ion-exchange reactions, have been developed toseparate the various rare-earth elements, lutetium is still the most costly of all rare earths. It is priced at about $100/g. Lutetium-176 occurs naturally (97.41%)with lutetium-175 (2.59%), which is radioactive with a very long half-life. It is radioactive with a half-life of about 4 X 10^10 years. Lutetium has 49 isotopesand isomers that are now recognized. Stable lutetium nuclides, which emit pure beta radiation after thermal neutron activation, can be used as catalystsin cracking, alkylation, hydrogenation, and polymerization. Virtually no other commercial uses have been found yet for lutetium. While lutetium, likeother rare-earth metals, is thought to have a low toxicity rating, it should be handled with care until more information is available. 1

• "is in PET scanners." 2

Proprietà fisiche

Punto di fusione:3*  1663 °C = 1936.15 K = 3025.4 °F
Punto di ebollizione:3* 3402 °C = 3675.15 K = 6155.6 °F
sublimazione Point:3 
Triple Point:3 
Punto critico:3 
Densità:4  9.84 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

configurazione elettronica

configurazione elettronica:  *[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d1
Bloccare: f
Più alto livello di energia Occupato: 6
Elettroni di valenza: 2

numeri quantici:

n = 5
ℓ = 2
m = -2
ms = +½

bonding

elettronegatività (scala Pauling):5 1.0
Electropositivity (scala Pauling): 3

potenziale di ionizzazione   eV 6  kJ/mol  
1 5.4259    523.5
potenziale di ionizzazione   eV 6  kJ/mol  
2 13.9    1341.1
3 20.9594    2022.3
potenziale di ionizzazione   eV 6  kJ/mol  
4 45.25    4366.0
5 66.8    6445.2

Termochimica

Calore specifico: 0.154 J/g°C 7 = 26.945 J/mol°C = 0.037 cal/g°C = 6.440 cal/mol°C
Conduttività termica: 16.4 (W/m)/K, 27°C 8
Calore di fusione: 18.6 kJ/mol 9 = 106.3 J/g
Calore di vaporizzazione: 355.9 kJ/mol 10 = 2034.1 J/g
Stato della materia Entalpia di formazione (ΔHf°)11 entropia (S°)11 Energia libera di Gibbs (ΔGf°)11
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 12.18 50.96112 0 0
(g) 102.2 427.6048 44.14 184.68176 96.7 404.5928

isotopi

nuclide Massa 12 Metà vita 12 spin nucleare 12 Energia di legame
150Lu 149.97323(54)# 43(5) ms (2+) 1,183.09 MeV
151Lu 150.96758(43)# 80.6(19) ms (11/2-) 1,200.48 MeV
152Lu 151.96412(21)# 650(70) ms (5-,6-) 1,208.55 MeV
153Lu 152.95877(22) 0.9(2) s 11/2- 1,225.94 MeV
154Lu 153.95752(22)# 1# s (2-) 1,234.01 MeV
155Lu 154.954316(22) 68.6(16) ms (11/2-) 1,242.08 MeV
156Lu 155.95303(8) 494(12) ms (2)- 1,250.15 MeV
157Lu 156.950098(20) 6.8(18) s (1/2+,3/2+) 1,258.22 MeV
158Lu 157.949313(16) 10.6(3) s 2- 1,275.61 MeV
159Lu 158.94663(4) 12.1(10) s 1/2+# 1,283.68 MeV
160Lu 159.94603(6) 36.1(3) s 2-# 1,291.75 MeV
161Lu 160.94357(3) 77(2) s 1/2+ 1,299.82 MeV
162Lu 161.94328(8) 1.37(2) min (1-) 1,307.89 MeV
163Lu 162.94118(3) 3.97(13) min 1/2(+) 1,315.97 MeV
164Lu 163.94134(3) 3.14(3) min 1(-) 1,324.04 MeV
165Lu 164.939407(28) 10.74(10) min 1/2+ 1,341.42 MeV
166Lu 165.93986(3) 2.65(10) min (6-) 1,349.49 MeV
167Lu 166.93827(3) 51.5(10) min 7/2+ 1,357.57 MeV
168Lu 167.93874(5) 5.5(1) min (6-) 1,365.64 MeV
169Lu 168.937651(6) 34.06(5) h 7/2+ 1,373.71 MeV
170Lu 169.938475(18) 2.012(20) d 0+ 1,381.78 MeV
171Lu 170.9379131(30) 8.24(3) d 7/2+ 1,389.85 MeV
172Lu 171.939086(3) 6.70(3) d 4- 1,397.92 MeV
173Lu 172.9389306(26) 1.37(1) a 7/2+ 1,405.99 MeV
174Lu 173.9403375(26) 3.31(5) a (1)- 1,404.75 MeV
175Lu 174.9407718(23) STABILE 7/2+ 1,412.82 MeV
176Lu 175.9426863(23) 38.5(7)E+9 a 7- 1,420.89 MeV
177Lu 176.9437581(23) 6.6475(20) d 7/2+ 1,428.96 MeV
178Lu 177.945955(3) 28.4(2) min 1(+) 1,437.04 MeV
179Lu 178.947327(6) 4.59(6) h 7/2(+) 1,445.11 MeV
180Lu 179.94988(8) 5.7(1) min 5+ 1,453.18 MeV
181Lu 180.95197(32)# 3.5(3) min (7/2+) 1,451.93 MeV
182Lu 181.95504(21)# 2.0(2) min (0,1,2) 1,460.01 MeV
183Lu 182.95757(32)# 58(4) s (7/2+) 1,468.08 MeV
184Lu 183.96091(43)# 20(3) s (3+) 1,466.83 MeV
I valori assegnati # non sono puramente derivati ​​da dati sperimentali, ma almeno parzialmente da tendenze sistematiche. Gira con argomenti di assegnazione deboli sono racchiusi tra parentesi. 12

Abbondanza

Terra - composti di origine: phosphates 13
Terra - L'acqua di mare: 0.00000015 mg/L 14
Terra -  Crosta:  0.8 mg/kg = 0.00008% 14
Terra -  Totale:  386 ppb 15
Pianeta Mercurio) -  Totale:  297 ppb 15
Venere -  Totale:  405 ppb 15
condriti - Totale: 0.031 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 16

Composti

Informazioni sulla sicurezza


Scheda di sicurezza - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Per maggiori informazioni

Link esterno:

riviste:
(1) Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, pp 136-145.

fonti

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:18.
(2) - Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, p 143.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(5) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(11) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(12) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(13) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(14) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(15) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(16) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.