LITIO

introduzione

Numero atomico: 3
Gruppo: 1 or I A
Peso atomico: 6.941
Periodo: 2
Numero CAS: 7439-93-2

Classificazione

Metallo
Metalloide
simile a metallo
metallo alcalino
Alkali terroso
Metallo di transizione
calcogeno
alogena
Gas nobile
Lanthanoid
Actinoid
Terre rare
Platinum Metal Group
transuranici
Non ci sono isotopi stabili
Solido
Liquido
Gas
Solido (previsto)

Descrizione • Usi / Funzione

Discovered by Arfvedson in 1817. Lithium is the lightest of all metals, with a density only about half that of water. It does not occur free in nature; combined it is found in small amounts in nearly all igneous rocks and in the waters of many mineral springs. Lepidolite, spodumene, petalite, and amblygonite are the more important minerals containing it. Lithium is presently being recovered from brines of Searles Lake, in California, and from Nevada, Chile, and Argentina. Large deposits of spodumene are found in North Carolina. The metal is produced electrolytically from the fused chloride. Lithium is silvery in appearance, much like Na and K, other members of the alkali metal series. It reacts with water, but not as vigorously as sodium. Lithium imparts a beautiful crimson color to a flame, but when the metal burns strongly the flame is a dazzling white. Since World War II, the production of lithium metal and its compounds has increased greatly. Because the metal has the highest specific heat of any solid element, it has found use in heat transfer applications; however, it is corrosive and requires special handling. The metal has been used as an alloying agent, is of interest in synthesis of organic compounds, and has nuclear applications. It ranks as a leading contender as a battery anode material as it has a high electrochemical potential. Lithium is used in special glasses and ceramics. The glass for the 200-inch telescope at Mt. Palomar contains lithium as a minor ingredient. Lithium chloride is one of the most hygroscopic materials known, and it, as well as lithium bromide, is used in air conditioning and industrial drying systems. Lithium stearate is used as an all-purpose and high-temperature lubricant. Other lithium compounds are used in dry cells and storage batteries. Seven isotopes of lithium are recognized. Natural lithium contains two isotopes. The metal is priced at about $500/kg (99.9%). 1

• "It is used as a heat transfer medium in experimental nuclear reactors. Extremely light lithium-aluminum alloys are used in aircraft construction. Lithium compounds are used in some lightweight dry cells and storage batteries because they have very long lives, even in extreme temperatures...Lithium compounds are used for the treatment of some types of mental disorders (mainly manic depression)." 2

Proprietà fisiche

Punto di fusione:3*  180.50 °C = 453.65 K = 356.9 °F
Punto di ebollizione:3* 1342 °C = 1615.15 K = 2447.6 °F
sublimazione Point:3 
Triple Point:3 
Punto critico:3 2950 °C = 3223.15 K = 5342 °F 3
Densità:4  0.534 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

configurazione elettronica

configurazione elettronica: [He] 2s1
Bloccare: s
Più alto livello di energia Occupato: 2
Elettroni di valenza: 1

numeri quantici:

n = 2
ℓ = 0
m = 0
ms = +½

bonding

elettronegatività (scala Pauling):5 0.98
Electropositivity (scala Pauling): 3.02
Affinità elettronica:6 0.618049 eV
ossidazione Uniti: +1
Funzione di lavoro:7 3.10 eV = 4.9662E-19 J

potenziale di ionizzazione   eV 8  kJ/mol  
1 5.39172    520.2
potenziale di ionizzazione   eV 8  kJ/mol  
2 75.64018    7298.2
potenziale di ionizzazione   eV 8  kJ/mol  
3 122.45429    11815.0

Termochimica

Calore specifico: 3.582 J/g°C 9 = 24.863 J/mol°C = 0.856 cal/g°C = 5.942 cal/mol°C
Conduttività termica: 84.7 (W/m)/K, 27°C 10
Calore di fusione: 3 kJ/mol 11 = 432.2 J/g
Calore di vaporizzazione: 145.92 kJ/mol 12 = 21022.9 J/g
Stato della materia Entalpia di formazione (ΔHf°)13 entropia (S°)13 Energia libera di Gibbs (ΔGf°)13
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 29.1 121.7544 0 0
(ℓ) 0.569 2.380696 8.11 33.93224 0.223 0.933032
(g) 38.4 160.6656 33.14 138.65776 30.6 128.0304

isotopi

nuclide Massa 14 Metà vita 14 spin nucleare 14 Energia di legame
10Li 10.035481(16) 2(5)E-21 s [1.2(3) MeV] (1-,2-) 45.76 MeV
11Li 11.043798(21) 8.75(14) ms 3/2- 46.38 MeV
12Li 12.053779(107)# <10 ns 45.14 MeV
4Li 4.02719(23) 91(9)E-24 s [6.3 MeV] 2- 4.69 MeV
5Li 5.01254(5) 370(30)E-24 s [~1.5 MeV] 3/2- 26.37 MeV
6Li 6.015122795(16) STABILE 1+ 32.02 MeV
7Li 7.01600455(8) STABILE 3/2- 39.25 MeV
8Li 8.022487359(10) 840.3(9) ms 2+ 41.36 MeV
9Li 9.026789499(21) 178.3(4) ms 3/2- 45.42 MeV
I valori assegnati # non sono puramente derivati ​​da dati sperimentali, ma almeno parzialmente da tendenze sistematiche. Gira con argomenti di assegnazione deboli sono racchiusi tra parentesi. 14

reazioni

Abbondanza

Terra - composti di origine: silicates 18
Terra - L'acqua di mare: 0.18 mg/L 19
Terra -  Crosta:  20 mg/kg = 0.002% 19
Terra -  Totale:  1.85 ppm 20
Pianeta Mercurio) -  Totale:  0.87 ppm 20
Venere -  Totale:  1.94 ppm 20
condriti - Totale: ~50 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 21

Composti

Informazioni sulla sicurezza

NFPA 704 Ratings:
Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or moderate residual injury.
Flammability: 0 - Will not burn.
Reactivity: 2 - Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water.
Special Hazard: W - Reacts with water in an unusual or dangerous manner.

Scheda di sicurezza - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Per maggiori informazioni

Link esterno:

riviste:
(1) Moyer, Michael. How Much is Left?. Scientific American, September 2010, pp 74-81.
(2) Fischetti, Mark. Charge Under Control. Scientific American, August 2010, pp 26-27.

fonti

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:18.
(2) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 924.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(5) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(7) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(13) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(14) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(15) - Atkins, Jones, and Laverman. Chemical Principles 6th ed.; W.H. Freeman and Company: New York, NY, 2013; p F94.
(16) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 299.
(17) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 78.
(18) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(19) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(20) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(21) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.