COBALTO

introduzione

Numero atomico: 27
Gruppo: 9 or VIII B
Peso atomico: 58.9332
Periodo: 4
Numero CAS: 7440-48-4

Classificazione

Metallo
Metalloide
simile a metallo
metallo alcalino
Alkali terroso
Metallo di transizione
calcogeno
alogena
Gas nobile
Lanthanoid
Actinoid
Terre rare
Platinum Metal Group
transuranici
Non ci sono isotopi stabili
Solido
Liquido
Gas
Solido (previsto)

Descrizione • Usi / Funzione

Discovered by Brandt about 1735. Cobalt occurs in the mineral cobaltite, smaltite, and erythrite, and is often associatedwith nickel, silver, lead, copper, and iron ores, from which it is most frequently obtained as a by-product. It is also present in meteorites. Importantore deposits are found in Zaire, Morocco, and Canada. The U.S. Geological Survey has announced that the bottom of the north central Pacific Oceanmay have cobalt-rich deposits at relatively shallow depths in waters close to the Hawaiian Islands and other U.S. Pacific territories. Cobalt is a brittle,hard metal, closely resembling iron and nickel in appearance. It has a magnetic permeability of about two thirds that of iron. Cobalt tends to exist asa mixture of two allotropes over a wide temperature range; the beta-form predominates below 400°C, and the alpha above that temperature. The transformationis sluggish and accounts in part for the wide variation in reported data on physical properties of cobalt. It is alloyed with iron, nickel and other metalsto make Alnico, an alloy of unusual magnetic strength with many important uses. Stellite alloys, containing cobalt, chromium, and tungsten, are usedfor high-speed, heavy-duty, high temperature cutting tools, and for dies. Cobalt is also used in other magnet steels and stainless steels, and in alloysused in jet turbines and gas turbine generators. The metal is used in electroplating because of its appearance, hardness, and resistance to oxidation.The salts have been used for centuries for the production of brilliant and permanent blue colors in porcelain, glass, pottery, tiles, and enamels. It isthe principal ingredient in Sevre’s and Thenard’s blue. A solution of the chloride (CoCl2 · 6H2O) is used as sympathetic ink. The cobalt ammines areof interest; the oxide and the nitrate are important. Cobalt carefully used in the form of the chloride, sulfate, acetate, or nitrate has been found effectivein correcting a certain mineral deficiency disease in animals. Soils should contain 0.13 to 0.30 ppm of cobalt for proper animal nutrition. Cobalt is foundin Vitamin B-12, which is essential for human nutrition. Cobalt-60, an artificial isotope, is an important gamma ray source, and is extensively usedas a tracer and a radiotherapeutic agent. Single compact sources of Cobalt-60 vary from about $1 to $10/curie, depending on quantity and specificactivity. Twenty six isotopes and isomers of cobalt are known. 1

• "essential for vitamin B12, but the human body cannot make vitamin B12 from cobalt and thus requires the performed vitamin from dietary sources." 2

Proprietà fisiche

Punto di fusione:3*  1495 °C = 1768.15 K = 2723 °F
Punto di ebollizione:3* 2927 °C = 3200.15 K = 5300.6 °F
sublimazione Point:3 
Triple Point:3 
Punto critico:3 
Densità:4  8.86 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

configurazione elettronica

configurazione elettronica: [Ar] 4s2 3d7
Bloccare: d
Più alto livello di energia Occupato: 4
Elettroni di valenza: 

numeri quantici:

n = 3
ℓ = 2
m = -1
ms = -½

bonding

elettronegatività (scala Pauling):5 1.88
Electropositivity (scala Pauling): 2.12
Affinità elettronica:6 0.662 eV
ossidazione Uniti: +2,3
Funzione di lavoro:7 4.70 eV = 7.5294E-19 J

potenziale di ionizzazione   eV 8  kJ/mol  
1 7.881    760.4
2 17.083    1648.3
3 33.5    3232.3
4 51.3    4949.7
5 79.5    7670.6
6 102    9841.5
7 128.9    12437.0
8 157.8    15225.4
9 186.13    17958.8
potenziale di ionizzazione   eV 8  kJ/mol  
10 275.4    26572.1
11 305    29428.0
12 336    32419.1
13 379    36567.9
14 411    39655.5
15 444    42839.5
16 511.96    49396.6
17 546.58    52736.9
18 1397.2    134809.3
potenziale di ionizzazione   eV 8  kJ/mol  
19 1504.6    145171.8
20 1603    154666.0
21 1735    167402.0
22 1846    178111.9
23 1962    189304.2
24 2119    204452.4
25 2219    214100.9
26 9544.1    920865.4
27 10012.12    966022.5

Termochimica

Calore specifico: 0.421 J/g°C 9 = 24.811 J/mol°C = 0.101 cal/g°C = 5.930 cal/mol°C
Conduttività termica: 100 (W/m)/K, 27°C 10
Calore di fusione: 16.19 kJ/mol 11 = 274.7 J/g
Calore di vaporizzazione: 376.5 kJ/mol 12 = 6388.6 J/g
Stato della materia Entalpia di formazione (ΔHf°)13 entropia (S°)13 Energia libera di Gibbs (ΔGf°)13
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s hexagonal) 0 0 7.18 30.04112 0 0
(s face centered cubic) 0.11 0.46024 7.34 30.71056 0.06 0.25104
(g) -26.42 -110.54128 47.30 197.9032 -32.81 -137.27704

isotopi

nuclide Massa 14 Metà vita 14 spin nucleare 14 Energia di legame
47Co 47.01149(54)# 7/2-# 347.98 MeV
48Co 48.00176(43)# 6+# 365.37 MeV
49Co 48.98972(28)# <35 ns 7/2-# 384.62 MeV
50Co 49.98154(18)# 44(4) ms (6+) 400.14 MeV
51Co 50.97072(16)# 60# ms [>200 ns] 7/2-# 418.46 MeV
52Co 51.96359(7)# 115(23) ms (6+) 433.05 MeV
53Co 52.954219(19) 242(8) ms 7/2-# 449.50 MeV
54Co 53.9484596(8) 193.28(7) ms 0+ 463.16 MeV
55Co 54.9419990(8) 17.53(3) h 7/2- 477.76 MeV
56Co 55.9398393(23) 77.233(27) d 4+ 487.69 MeV
57Co 56.9362914(8) 271.74(6) d 7/2- 498.56 MeV
58Co 57.9357528(13) 70.86(6) d 2+ 507.56 MeV
59Co 58.9331950(7) STABILE 7/2- 517.49 MeV
60Co 59.9338171(7) 5.2713(8) a 5+ 525.56 MeV
61Co 60.9324758(10) 1.650(5) h 7/2- 534.57 MeV
62Co 61.934051(21) 1.50(4) min 2+ 540.78 MeV
63Co 62.933612(21) 26.9(4) s 7/2- 549.78 MeV
64Co 63.935810(21) 0.30(3) s 1+ 555.99 MeV
65Co 64.936478(14) 1.20(6) s (7/2)- 563.13 MeV
66Co 65.93976(27) 0.18(1) s (3+) 568.40 MeV
67Co 66.94089(34) 0.425(20) s (7/2-)# 575.54 MeV
68Co 67.94487(34) 0.199(21) s (7-) 579.89 MeV
69Co 68.94632(36) 227(13) ms 7/2-# 586.10 MeV
70Co 69.9510(9) 119(6) ms (6-) 589.51 MeV
71Co 70.9529(9) 97(2) ms 7/2-# 596.65 MeV
72Co 71.95781(64)# 62(3) ms (6-,7-) 600.06 MeV
73Co 72.96024(75)# 41(4) ms 7/2-# 605.34 MeV
74Co 73.96538(86)# 50# ms [>300 ns] 0+ 608.76 MeV
75Co 74.96833(86)# 40# ms [>300 ns] 7/2-# 614.03 MeV
I valori assegnati # non sono puramente derivati ​​da dati sperimentali, ma almeno parzialmente da tendenze sistematiche. Gira con argomenti di assegnazione deboli sono racchiusi tra parentesi. 14

reazioni

2 Al (s) + 3 CoCl2 (aq) → 2 AlCl3 (aq) + 3 Co (s) 
Al2O3 + 3 C + 3 Cl2 → 2 AlCl3 + 3 CO  15
Bi2O3 (s) + 3 C (s graphite) → 3 Bi (s) + 3 CO (g) 16
C (s graphite) + 1 H2O (g) → CO (g) + H2 (g) 17
2 C (s graphite) + 1 O2 (g) → 2 CO (g) 18
C3H8 (g propane) + 3 H2O (g) → 3 CO (g) + 7 H2 (g) 19
2 Ca3(PO4)2 (s beta) + 6 SiO2 (s quartz) + 10 C (s graphite) → P4 (g) + 6 CaSiO3 (ℓ) + 10 CO (g) 20
CaO (s) + 3 C (s) → CaC2 (s) + CO (g) 21
CH3OH (ℓ methanol) → 2 H2 (g) + CO (g) 22
CH3OH (ℓ methanol) + 1 CO (g) → CH3COOH (ℓ) 23
2 CH3SH + 1 CO → CH3COSCH3 + H2S  24
2 CH4 (g methane) + 1 O2 (g) → 2 CO (g) + 4 H2 (g) 25
CH4 (g methane) + 1 H2O (g) → CO (g) + 3 H2 (g) 25
2 CO (g) + 1 O2 (g) → 2 CO2 (g) 26
CO2 (g) + 1 C (s) → 2 CO (g) 27
Fe2O3 (s hematite) + 3 CO (g) → 2 Fe (s alpha) + 3 CO2 (g) 28
Fe2O3 (s hematite) + 3 C (s graphite) → 2 Fe (s alpha) + 3 CO (g) 29
FeO (s) + 1 CO (g) → Fe (s alpha) + CO2 (g) 30
FeO (s) + 1 C (s graphite) → Fe (s alpha) + CO (g) 30
H2O (g) + 1 CO (g) → H2 (g) + CO2 (g) 31
HCOOH (ℓ) → H2O (ℓ) + CO (g) 32
Na2SO4 (s) + 4 C (s graphite) → Na2S (s) + 4 CO (g) 33
SiO2 (s quartz) + 2 C (s graphite) → Si (ℓ) + 2 CO (g) 34
SiO2 (g) + 2 C (s graphite) + 2 Cl2 (g) → SiCl4 (g) + 2 CO (g) 35
2 TiO2 (s rutile) + 3 C (s graphite) + 4 Cl2 (g) → 2 TiCl4 (g) + CO2 (g) + 2 CO (g) 36
ZnO + 1 C → Zn + CO  37
ZnO (s) + 1 CO (g) → Zn (s) + CO2 (g) 38
2 Ca3(PO4)2 (s beta) + 6 SiO2 (s quartz) + 10 C (s graphite) → P4 (g) + 6 CaSiO3 (s wollastonite) + 10 CO (g) 39
13 C (s graphite) + 3 Cr2O3 (s) → 2 Cr3C2 (s) + 9 CO (g) 40

Abbondanza

Terra - composti di origine: sulfides 41
Terra - L'acqua di mare: 0.00002 mg/L 42
Terra -  Crosta:  25 mg/kg = 0.0025% 42
Terra -  Mantello:  0.04% 43
Terra -  Nucleo:  0.6% 43
Terra -  Litosfera:  0.003% 44
Terra -  Totale:  840 ppm 45
Pianeta Mercurio) -  Totale:  1690 ppm 45
Venere -  Totale:  820 ppm 45
condriti - Totale: 1300 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 46
Corpo umano - Totale: 0.000002% 47

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Informazioni sulla sicurezza


Scheda di sicurezza - ACI Alloys, Inc.

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fonti

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