ATTINIO

introduzione

Numero atomico: 89
Gruppo: 3 or III B
Peso atomico: 227
Periodo: 7
Numero CAS: 7440-34-8

Classificazione

Metallo
Metalloide
simile a metallo
metallo alcalino
Alkali terroso
Metallo di transizione
calcogeno
alogena
Gas nobile
Lanthanoid
Actinoid
Terre rare
Platinum Metal Group
transuranici
Non ci sono isotopi stabili
Solido
Liquido
Gas
Solido (previsto)

Descrizione • Usi / Funzione

Discovered by Andre Debierne in 1899 and independently by F. Giesel in 1902. Occurs naturally in association with uranium minerals. Thirty two isotopes and isomers are now recognized. All are radioactive. Actinium-227, a decay product of uranium-235, is an alpha and beta emitter with a 21.77-year halflife. Its principal decay products are thorium-227 (18.72-day half-life), radium-223 (11.4-day half-life), and a number of short-lived products including radon, bismuth, polonium, and lead isotopes. In equilibrium with its decay products, it is a powerful source of alpha rays. Actinium metal has been prepared by the reduction of actinium fluoride with lithium vapor at about 1100 to 1300°C. The chemical behavior of actinium is similar to that of the rare earths, particularly lanthanum. Purified actinium comes into equilibrium with its decay products at the end of 185 days, and then decays according to its 21.77-year half-life. It is about 150 times as active as radium, making it of value in the production of neutrons. 1

Proprietà fisiche

Punto di fusione:2*  1051 °C = 1324.15 K = 1923.8 °F
Punto di ebollizione:2* 3198 °C = 3471.15 K = 5788.4 °F
sublimazione Point:2 
Triple Point:2 
Punto critico:2 
Densità:3  10 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

configurazione elettronica

configurazione elettronica:  *[Rn] 7s2 5f1
Bloccare: d
Più alto livello di energia Occupato: 7
Elettroni di valenza: 

numeri quantici:

n = 5
ℓ = 3
m = -3
ms = +½

bonding

elettronegatività (scala Pauling):4 1.1
Electropositivity (scala Pauling): 2.9
Affinità elettronica:5 0.35 eV
ossidazione Uniti: +3

potenziale di ionizzazione   eV 6  kJ/mol  
potenziale di ionizzazione   eV 6  kJ/mol  
1 5.17    498.8
potenziale di ionizzazione   eV 6  kJ/mol  
2 12.1    1167.5

Termochimica

Calore specifico: 0.120 J/g°C 7 = 27.240 J/mol°C = 0.029 cal/g°C = 6.511 cal/mol°C
Conduttività termica: 12 (W/m)/K, 27°C 8
Calore di fusione: 
Calore di vaporizzazione: 
Stato della materia Entalpia di formazione (ΔHf°)9 entropia (S°)9 Energia libera di Gibbs (ΔGf°)9
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 15.00 62.76 0 0
(g) 94.0 393.296
(s) 0.0 0 56.5 236.396
(g) 406.0 1698.704 188.1 787.0104 366.0 1531.344

isotopi

nuclide Massa 10 Metà vita 10 spin nucleare 10 Energia di legame
206Ac 206.01450(8) 25(7) ms (3+) 1,583.74 MeV
207Ac 207.01195(6) 31(8) ms [27(+11-6) ms] 9/2-# 1,591.82 MeV
208Ac 208.01155(6) 97(16) ms [95(+24-16) ms] (3+) 1,599.89 MeV
209Ac 209.00949(5) 92(11) ms (9/2-) 1,617.27 MeV
210Ac 210.00944(6) 350(40) ms 7+# 1,625.35 MeV
211Ac 211.00773(8) 213(25) ms 9/2-# 1,633.42 MeV
212Ac 212.00781(7) 920(50) ms 6+# 1,641.49 MeV
213Ac 213.00661(6) 731(17) ms (9/2-)# 1,649.56 MeV
214Ac 214.006902(24) 8.2(2) s (5+)# 1,657.63 MeV
215Ac 215.006454(23) 0.17(1) s 9/2- 1,665.70 MeV
216Ac 216.008720(29) 0.440(16) ms (1-) 1,673.77 MeV
217Ac 217.009347(14) 69(4) ns 9/2- 1,681.84 MeV
218Ac 218.01164(5) 1.08(9) μs (1-)# 1,680.60 MeV
219Ac 219.01242(5) 11.8(15) μs 9/2- 1,688.67 MeV
220Ac 220.014763(16) 26.36(19) ms (3-) 1,696.74 MeV
221Ac 221.01559(5) 52(2) ms 9/2-# 1,704.81 MeV
222Ac 222.017844(6) 5.0(5) s 1- 1,712.89 MeV
223Ac 223.019137(8) 2.10(5) min (5/2-) 1,720.96 MeV
224Ac 224.021723(4) 2.78(17) h 0- 1,719.71 MeV
225Ac 225.023230(5) 10.0(1) d (3/2-) 1,727.79 MeV
226Ac 226.026098(4) 29.37(12) h (1)(-#) 1,735.86 MeV
227Ac 227.0277521(26) 21.772(3) a 3/2- 1,743.93 MeV
228Ac 228.0310211(27) 6.15(2) h 3+ 1,742.68 MeV
229Ac 229.03302(4) 62.7(5) min (3/2+) 1,750.76 MeV
230Ac 230.03629(32) 122(3) s (1+) 1,758.83 MeV
231Ac 231.03856(11) 7.5(1) min (1/2+) 1,766.90 MeV
232Ac 232.04203(11) 119(5) s (1+) 1,765.65 MeV
233Ac 233.04455(32)# 145(10) s (1/2+) 1,773.73 MeV
234Ac 234.04842(43)# 44(7) s 1,781.80 MeV
235Ac 235.05123(38)# 40# s 1/2+# 1,780.55 MeV
236Ac 236.05530(54)# 2# min 1,788.62 MeV
I valori assegnati # non sono puramente derivati ​​da dati sperimentali, ma almeno parzialmente da tendenze sistematiche. Gira con argomenti di assegnazione deboli sono racchiusi tra parentesi. 10

Abbondanza

Terra -  Crosta:  0.00000000055 mg/kg = 0.000000000000055% 11

Informazioni sulla sicurezza


Scheda di sicurezza - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Per maggiori informazioni

Link esterno:

riviste:
(1) A. Debierne, C. R. Acad. Sci. 129, 593 (1899)
(2) F.O. Geisel, Ber. 55, 3608 (1902)
(3) J.G. Stites, Jr. et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77, 237 (1955)
(4) J.D. Farr et al., J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 18, 42 (1961)
(5) O. Hahn, Ber. 40, 1462 (1907)

fonti

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:3.
(2) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(4) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 5:5.
(12) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.