TELLURE

introduction

Numéro atomique: 52
Groupe: 16 or VI A
Poids atomique: 127.6
Période: 5
Numero CAS: 13494-80-9

Classification

chalcogènes
Halogène
Gaz rare
lanthanides
actinides
Rare Earth Element
Groupe Platine Métal
Transuranium
Pas d'isotopes stables
Solide
Liquide
Gaz
Solide (prédit)

La description • Usages / Fonction

Discovered by Muller von Reichenstein in 1782; named by Klaproth, who isolated it in 1798. Tellurium is occasionally found native, but is more often found asthe telluride of gold (calaverite), and combined with other metals. It is recovered commercially from the anode muds produced during the electrolyticrefining of blister copper. The U.S., Canada, Peru, and Japan are the largest Free World producers of the element. Crystalline tellurium has a silverywhiteappearance, and when pure exhibits a metallic luster. It is brittle and easily pulverized. Amorphous tellurium is formed by precipitating telluriumfrom a solution of telluric or tellurous acid. Whether this form is truly amorphous, or made of minute crystals, is open to question. Tellurium is a ptypesemiconductor, and shows greater conductivity in certain directions, depending on alignment of the atoms. Its conductivity increases slightly withexposure to light. It can be doped with silver, copper, gold, tin, or other elements. In air, tellurium burns with a greenish-blue flame, forming the dioxide.Molten tellurium corrodes iron, copper, and stainless steel. Tellurium and its compounds are probably toxic and should be handled with care. Workmenexposed to as little as 0.01 mg/m^3 of air, or less, develop “tellurium breath,” which has a garlic-like odor. Forty two isotopes and isomers of telluriumare known, with atomic masses ranging from 106 to 138. Natural tellurium consists of eight isotopes, two of which are radioactive with very long halflives.Tellurium improves the machinability of copper and stainless steel, and its addition to lead decreases the corrosive action of sulfuric acid on leadand improves its strength and hardness. Tellurium is used as a basic ingredient in blasting caps, and is added to cast iron for chill control. Telluriumis used in ceramics. Bismuth telluride has been used in thermoelectric devices. Tellurium costs about 20¢/g, with a purity of about 99.5%. The metalwith a purity of 99.9999% costs about $2/g. 1

• "It is added to some metals, particularly lead, to increase electrical resistance and improve resistance to heat, corrosion, mechanical shock, and wear." 2

Propriétés physiques

Point de fusion:3*  449.51 °C = 722.66 K = 841.118 °F
Point d'ébullition:3* 988 °C = 1261.15 K = 1810.4 °F
sublimation point:3 
Triple point:3 
Point critique:3 
Densité:4  6.24 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Configuration de l'électron

Configuration de l'électron: [Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p4
Bloque: p
Plus haut niveau d'énergie occupés: 5
Électrons de valence: 6

Nombres quantiques:

n = 5
ℓ = 1
m = -1
ms = -½

Bonding

Électronégativité (échelle de Pauling):5 2.1
Electropositivity (échelle de Pauling): 1.9
Electron Affinity:6 1.9708 eV
oxydation États: +4,6,-2
Fonction de travail:7 4.70 eV = 7.5294E-19 J

ionisation potentiel   eV 8  kJ/mol  
1 9.0096    869.3
2 18.6    1794.6
ionisation potentiel   eV 8  kJ/mol  
3 27.96    2697.7
4 37.41    3609.5
ionisation potentiel   eV 8  kJ/mol  
5 58.75    5668.5
6 70.7    6821.5
7 137    13218.5

Thermochimie

Chaleur spécifique: 0.202 J/g°C 9 = 25.775 J/mol°C = 0.048 cal/g°C = 6.160 cal/mol°C
Conductivité thermique: 2.35 (W/m)/K, 27°C 10
Température de fusion: 17.49 kJ/mol 11 = 137.1 J/g
Chaleur de vaporisation: 52.55 kJ/mol 12 = 411.8 J/g
État de la matière Enthalpie de formation (ΔHf°)13 Entropy (S°)13 Gibbs Free Energy (ΔGf°)13
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 11.88 49.70592 0 0
(g) 47.02 196.73168 43.65 182.6316 37.55 157.1092

isotopes

Nuclide Masse 14 Demi vie 14 Spin nucléaire 14 Énergie de liaison
105Te 104.94364(54)# 1# μs 5/2+# 862.69 MeV
106Te 105.93750(14) 70(20) μs [70(+20-10) μs] 0+ 880.08 MeV
107Te 106.93501(32)# 3.1(1) ms 5/2+# 888.15 MeV
108Te 107.92944(11) 2.1(1) s 0+ 905.54 MeV
109Te 108.92742(7) 4.6(3) s (5/2+) 913.61 MeV
110Te 109.92241(6) 18.6(8) s 0+ 921.68 MeV
111Te 110.92111(8) 19.3(4) s (5/2)+# 929.75 MeV
112Te 111.91701(18) 2.0(2) min 0+ 947.14 MeV
113Te 112.91589(3) 1.7(2) min (7/2+) 955.21 MeV
114Te 113.91209(3) 15.2(7) min 0+ 963.28 MeV
115Te 114.91190(3) 5.8(2) min 7/2+ 971.35 MeV
116Te 115.90846(3) 2.49(4) h 0+ 988.74 MeV
117Te 116.908645(14) 62(2) min 1/2+ 996.81 MeV
118Te 117.905828(16) 6.00(2) d 0+ 1,004.88 MeV
119Te 118.906404(9) 16.05(5) h 1/2+ 1,012.95 MeV
120Te 119.90402(1) STABLE 0+ 1,021.02 MeV
121Te 120.904936(28) 19.16(5) d 1/2+ 1,029.10 MeV
122Te 121.9030439(16) STABLE 0+ 1,037.17 MeV
123Te 122.9042700(16) >600E+12 a 1/2+ 1,045.24 MeV
124Te 123.9028179(16) STABLE 0+ 1,053.31 MeV
125Te 124.9044307(16) STABLE 1/2+ 1,061.38 MeV
126Te 125.9033117(16) STABLE 0+ 1,069.45 MeV
127Te 126.9052263(16) 9.35(7) h 3/2+ 1,077.52 MeV
128Te 127.9044631(19) 2.2(3)E+24 a 0+ 1,085.59 MeV
129Te 128.9065982(19) 69.6(3) min 3/2+ 1,093.67 MeV
130Te 129.9062244(21) 790(100)E+18 a 0+ 1,101.74 MeV
131Te 130.9085239(21) 25.0(1) min 3/2+ 1,109.81 MeV
132Te 131.908553(7) 3.204(13) d 0+ 1,117.88 MeV
133Te 132.910955(26) 12.5(3) min (3/2+) 1,116.64 MeV
134Te 133.911369(11) 41.8(8) min 0+ 1,124.71 MeV
135Te 134.91645(10) 19.0(2) s (7/2-) 1,132.78 MeV
136Te 135.92010(5) 17.63(8) s 0+ 1,131.54 MeV
137Te 136.92532(13) 2.49(5) s 3/2-# 1,139.61 MeV
138Te 137.92922(22)# 1.4(4) s 0+ 1,147.68 MeV
139Te 138.93473(43)# 500# ms [>300 ns] 5/2-# 1,146.43 MeV
140Te 139.93885(32)# 300# ms [>300 ns] 0+ 1,154.51 MeV
141Te 140.94465(43)# 100# ms [>300 ns] 5/2-# 1,153.26 MeV
142Te 141.94908(64)# 50# ms [>300 ns] 0+ 1,161.33 MeV
Les valeurs marquées # ne sont pas purement dérivées des données expérimentales, mais au moins en partie des tendances systématiques. Spins avec de faibles arguments d'affectation sont entre parenthèses. 14

Abondance

Terre - composés Source: sulfides 15
Terre -  Croûte:  0.001 mg/kg = 0.0000001% 15
Terre -  Total:  1490 ppb 16
Planète Mercure) -  Total:  122 ppb 16
Vénus -  Total:  830 ppb 16
chondrites - Total: 0.60 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 17

composés

Information de sécurité


Fiche signalétique - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Pour plus d'informations

Liens externes:

Sources

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:31.
(2) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 953.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(6) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(12) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(13) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(14) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(15) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(16) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(17) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.