SOUFRE

introduction

Numéro atomique: 16
Groupe: 16 or VI A
Poids atomique: 32.065
Période: 3
Numero CAS: 7704-34-9

Classification

chalcogènes
Halogène
Gaz rare
lanthanides
actinides
Rare Earth Element
Groupe Platine Métal
Transuranium
Pas d'isotopes stables
Solide
Liquide
Gaz
Solide (prédit)

La description • Usages / Fonction

Known to the ancients; referred to in Genesis as brimstone. Sulfur is found in meteorites. A dark area near the crater Aristarchus on the moon has been studied by R. W. Wood with ultraviolet light. This study suggests strongly that it is a sulfur deposit. Sulfur occurs native in the vicinity of volcanoes and hot springs. It is widely distributed in nature as iron pyrites, galena, sphalerite, cinnabar, stibnite, gypsum, Epsom salts, celestite, barite,etc. Sulfur is commercially recovered from wells sunk into the salt domes along the Gulf Coast of the U.S. It is obtained from these wells by the Frasch process, which forces heated water into the wells to melt the sulfur, which is then brought to the surface. Sulfur also occurs in natural gas and petroleum crudes and must be removed from these products. Formerly this was done chemically, which wasted the sulfur. New processes now permit recovery, and these sources promise to be very important. Large amounts of sulfur are being recovered from Alberta gas fields. Sulfur is a pale yellow, odorless, brittle solid, which is insoluble in water but soluble in carbon disulfide. In every state, whether gas, liquid or solid, elemental sulfur occurs in more than one allotropic form or modification; these present a confusing multitude of forms whose relations are not yet fully understood. Amorphous or “plastic” sulfur is obtained by fast cooling of the crystalline form. X-ray studies indicate that amorphous sulfur may have a helical structure with eight atoms per spiral. Crystalline sulfur seems to be made of rings, each containing eight sulfur atoms, which fit together to give a normal X-ray pattern. Seventeen isotopes of sulfur are now recognized. Four occur in natural sulfur, none of which is radioactive. A finely divided form of sulfur, known as flowers of sulfur, is obtained by sublimation. Sulfur readily forms sulfides with many elements. Sulfur is a component of black gunpowder, and is used in the vulcanization of natural rubber and a fungicide. It is also used extensively is making phosphatic fertilizers. A tremendous tonnage is used to produce sulfuric acid, the most important manufactured chemical. It is used in making sulfite paper and other papers, as a fumigant, and in the bleaching of dried fruits. The element is a good electrical insulator. Organic compounds containing sulfur are very important. Calcium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, carbon disulfide, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide are but a few of the many other important compounds of sulfur. Sulfur is essential to life. It is a minor constituent of fats, body fluids, and skeletal minerals. Carbon disulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and sulfur dioxide should be handled carefully. Hydrogen sulfide in small concentrations can be metabolized, but in higher concentrations it quickly can cause death by respiratory paralysis. It is insidious in that it quickly deadens the sense of smell. Sulfur dioxide is a dangerous component in atmospheric air pollution. In 1975, University of Pennsylvania scientists reported synthesis of polymeric sulfur nitride, which has the properties of a metal, although it contains no metal atoms. The material has unusual optical and electrical properties. High-purity sulfur is commercially available in purities of 99.999+%, at a cost of about $50/100 g. 1

• "used in the production of sulfuric acid, H2SO4, the most important of all industrial chemicals. Sulfur is used in the vulcanization of rubber and in the synthesis of many important sulfur-containing organic compounds." 2
• "Free sulfur is used to vulcanize rubber to remove its tackiness and give it greater elasticity." 3

Propriétés physiques

Form:4 rhombic
Point de fusion:4*  95.3 °C = 368.45 K = 203.54 °F
Point d'ébullition:4* 444.60 °C = 717.75 K = 832.28 °F
sublimation point:4 
Triple point:4 
Point critique:4 1041 °C = 1314.15 K = 1905.8 °F 4
Form:4 monoclinic
Point de fusion:4*  119.6 °C = 392.75 K = 247.28 °F
Point d'ébullition:4* 444.60 °C = 717.75 K = 832.28 °F
sublimation point:4 
Triple point:4 
Point critique:4 1041 °C = 1314.15 K = 1905.8 °F 4
Densité:5  2.07 (all forms) g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Configuration de l'électron

Configuration de l'électron: [Ne] 3s2 3p4
Bloque: p
Plus haut niveau d'énergie occupés: 3
Électrons de valence: 6

Nombres quantiques:

n = 3
ℓ = 1
m = -1
ms = -½

Bonding

Électronégativité (échelle de Pauling):6 2.58
Electropositivity (échelle de Pauling): 1.42
Electron Affinity:7 2.077103 eV
oxydation États: -2

ionisation potentiel   eV 8  kJ/mol  
1 10.36001    999.6
2 23.3379    2251.8
3 34.79    3356.7
4 47.222    4556.2
5 72.5945    7004.3
ionisation potentiel   eV 8  kJ/mol  
6 88.053    8495.8
7 280.948    27107.4
8 328.75    31719.5
9 379.55    36621.0
10 447.5    43177.2
ionisation potentiel   eV 8  kJ/mol  
11 504.8    48705.8
12 564.44    54460.2
13 652.2    62927.7
14 707.01    68216.1
15 3223.78    311047.4
16 3494.1892    337137.9

Thermochimie

Chaleur spécifique: 0.710 J/g°C 9 = 22.766 J/mol°C = 0.170 cal/g°C = 5.441 cal/mol°C
Conductivité thermique: 0.269 (W/m)/K, 27°C 10
Température de fusion: 1.7175 kJ/mol 11 = 53.6 J/g
Chaleur de vaporisation: 
État de la matière Enthalpie de formation (ΔHf°)12 Entropy (S°)12 Gibbs Free Energy (ΔGf°)12
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s rhombic) 0 0 7.63 31.92392 0 0
(ℓ) 0.34 1.42256 8.4 35.1456 0.09 0.37656
(g) 66.29 277.35736 40.09 167.73656 56.61 236.85624

isotopes

Nuclide Masse 13 Demi vie 13 Spin nucléaire 13 Énergie de liaison
26S 26.02788(32)# 10# ms 0+ 172.19 MeV
27S 27.01883(22)# 15.5(15) ms (5/2+) 188.64 MeV
28S 28.00437(17) 125(10) ms 0+ 209.75 MeV
29S 28.99661(5) 187(4) ms 5/2+ 225.28 MeV
30S 29.984903(3) 1.178(5) s 0+ 244.53 MeV
31S 30.9795547(16) 2.572(13) s 1/2+ 257.25 MeV
32S 31.97207100(15) STABLE 0+ 271.85 MeV
33S 32.97145876(15) STABLE 3/2+ 280.85 MeV
34S 33.96786690(12) STABLE 0+ 292.65 MeV
35S 34.96903216(11) 87.51(12) d 3/2+ 298.85 MeV
36S 35.96708076(20) STABLE 0+ 308.79 MeV
37S 36.97112557(21) 5.05(2) min 7/2- 313.13 MeV
38S 37.971163(8) 170.3(7) min 0+ 321.21 MeV
39S 38.97513(5) 11.5(5) s (3/2,5/2,7/2)- 325.55 MeV
40S 39.97545(15) 8.8(22) s 0+ 333.62 MeV
41S 40.97958(13) 1.99(5) s (7/2-)# 337.97 MeV
42S 41.98102(13) 1.013(15) s 0+ 344.18 MeV
43S 42.98715(22) 260(15) ms 3/2-# 346.66 MeV
44S 43.99021(42) 100(1) ms 0+ 351.93 MeV
45S 44.99651(187) 68(2) ms 3/2-# 354.42 MeV
46S 46.00075(75)# 50(8) ms 0+ 358.76 MeV
47S 47.00859(86)# 20# ms [>200 ns] 3/2-# 359.38 MeV
48S 48.01417(97)# 10# ms [>200 ns] 0+ 361.86 MeV
49S 49.02362(102)# <200 ns 3/2-# 361.55 MeV
Les valeurs marquées # ne sont pas purement dérivées des données expérimentales, mais au moins en partie des tendances systématiques. Spins avec de faibles arguments d'affectation sont entre parenthèses. 13

Réactions

Abondance

Terre - composés Source: uncombined 20
Terre - Seawater: 905 mg/L 21
Terre -  Croûte:  350 mg/kg = 0.035% 21
Terre -  Manteau:  >2% 22
Terre -  lithosphère:  0.034% 23
Terre -  Total:  2.92 % 24
Planète Mercure) -  Total:  0.24% 24
Vénus -  Total:  1.62% 24
Univers -  Total:  0.04% 22
chondrites - Total: 1.1×105 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 25
Corps humain - Total: 0.2% 26

composés

Information de sécurité


Fiche signalétique - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Pour plus d'informations

Liens externes:

Journaux:
(1) D. W. Johnson, Biogeochemistry 1, 29-43 (1984)

Sources

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:30.
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(3) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 305.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(6) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
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(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
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(13) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(14) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
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(23) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 962.
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