TERBIO

Introducción

Número atómico: 65
Grupo: Ninguna
Peso atomico: 158.92534
Período: 6
Número CAS: 7440-27-9

Clasificación

chalcogen
halógeno
Gas noble
Lantanoides
Actinoides
Elemento de tierras raras
Platino Metal Group
transuranium
No hay isótopos estables
Sólido
Líquido
Gas
Sólido (Predicho)

Descripción • Usos / Función

Discovered by Mosander in 1843. Terbium is a member of the lanthanide or “rare earth” group of elements. It is found in cerite, gadolinite, and other mineralsalong with other rare earths. It is recovered commercially from monazite in which it is present to the extent of 0.03%, from xenotime, and from euxenite,a complex oxide containing 1% of more of terbia. Terbium has been isolated only in recent years with the development of ion-exchange techniquesfor separating the rare-earth elements. As with other rare earths, it can be produced by reducing the anhydrous chloride or fluoride with calcium metalin a tantalum crucible. Calcium and tantalum impurities can be removed by vacuum remelting. Other methods of isolation are possible. Terbium isreasonably stable in air. It is a silver-gray metal, and is malleable, ductile, and soft enough to be cut with a knife. Two crystal modifications exist, witha transformation temperature of 1289°C. Forty one isotopes and isomers are recognized. The oxide is a chocolate or dark maroon color. Sodium terbiumborate is used as a laser material and emits coherent light at 0.546 micrometers. Terbium is used to dope calcium fluoride, calcium tungstate, and strontiummolybdate, used in solid-state devices. The oxide has potential application as an activator for green phosphors used in color TV tubes. It can be usedwith ZrO2 as a crystal stabilizer of fuel cells which operate at elevated temperature. Few other uses have been found. The element is priced at about$30/g (99.9%). Little is known of the toxicity of terbium. It should be handled with care as with other lanthanide elements. 1

• "[in] a compact fluorescent lightbulb" 2

Propiedades físicas

Punto de fusion:3*  1356 °C = 1629.15 K = 2472.8 °F
Punto de ebullición:3* 3230 °C = 3503.15 K = 5846 °F
Punto de sublimación:3 
Triple punto:3 
Punto crítico:3 
Densidad:4  8.23 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Configuración electronica

Configuración electronica:  *[Xe] 6s2 4f9
Bloquear: f
Ocupado más alto nivel de energía: 6
Electrones de valencia: 2

Números cuánticos:

n = 4
ℓ = 3
m = -2
ms = -½

Vinculación

Función del trabajo:5 3.0 eV = 4.806E-19 J

potencial de ionización   eV 6  kJ/mol  
1 5.8638    565.8
potencial de ionización   eV 6  kJ/mol  
2 11.52    1111.5
potencial de ionización   eV 6  kJ/mol  
3 21.91    2114.0
4 39.79    3839.2

termoquímica

Calor especifico: 0.182 J/g°C 7 = 28.924 J/mol°C = 0.043 cal/g°C = 6.913 cal/mol°C
Conductividad térmica: 11.1 (W/m)/K, 27°C 8
Calor de fusión: 10.8 kJ/mol 9 = 68.0 J/g
Calor de vaporización: 330.9 kJ/mol 10 = 2082.1 J/g
Estado de la materia Entalpía de formación (ΔHf°)11 entropía (S°)11 Energía libre de Gibbs (ΔGf°)11
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 17.50 73.22 0 0
(g) 92.9 388.6936 48.63 203.46792 83.6 349.7824

isótopos

nucleido Masa 12 Media vida 12 spin nuclear 12 Energía de unión
135Tb 0.94(+33-22) ms (7/2-)
136Tb 135.96138(64)# 0.2# s 1,084.10 MeV
137Tb 136.95598(64)# 600# ms 11/2-# 1,101.49 MeV
138Tb 137.95316(43)# 800# ms [>200 ns] 1,109.56 MeV
139Tb 138.94829(32)# 1.6(2) s 11/2-# 1,126.95 MeV
140Tb 139.94581(86) 2.4(2) s 5 1,135.02 MeV
141Tb 140.94145(11) 3.5(2) s (5/2-) 1,143.09 MeV
142Tb 141.93874(32)# 597(17) ms 1+ 1,160.48 MeV
143Tb 142.93512(6) 12(1) s (11/2-) 1,168.55 MeV
144Tb 143.93305(3) ~1 s 1+ 1,176.62 MeV
145Tb 144.92927(6) 20# min (3/2+) 1,194.01 MeV
146Tb 145.92725(5) 8(4) s 1+ 1,202.08 MeV
147Tb 146.924045(13) 1.64(3) h 1/2+# 1,210.15 MeV
148Tb 147.924272(15) 60(1) min 2- 1,218.22 MeV
149Tb 148.923246(5) 4.118(25) h 1/2+ 1,226.29 MeV
150Tb 149.923660(8) 3.48(16) h (2-) 1,234.36 MeV
151Tb 150.923103(5) 17.609(1) h 1/2(+) 1,242.43 MeV
152Tb 151.92407(4) 17.5(1) h 2- 1,250.51 MeV
153Tb 152.923435(5) 2.34(1) d 5/2+ 1,258.58 MeV
154Tb 153.92468(5) 21.5(4) h 0(+#) 1,266.65 MeV
155Tb 154.923505(13) 5.32(6) d 3/2+ 1,274.72 MeV
156Tb 155.924747(5) 5.35(10) d 3- 1,282.79 MeV
157Tb 156.9240246(27) 71(7) a 3/2+ 1,290.86 MeV
158Tb 157.9254131(28) 180(11) a 3- 1,298.93 MeV
159Tb 158.9253468(27) ESTABLE 3/2+ 1,307.00 MeV
160Tb 159.9271676(27) 72.3(2) d 3- 1,315.08 MeV
161Tb 160.9275699(28) 6.906(19) d 3/2+ 1,323.15 MeV
162Tb 161.92949(4) 7.60(15) min 1- 1,331.22 MeV
163Tb 162.930648(5) 19.5(3) min 3/2+ 1,329.97 MeV
164Tb 163.93335(11) 3.0(1) min (5+) 1,338.05 MeV
165Tb 164.93488(21)# 2.11(10) min 3/2+# 1,346.12 MeV
166Tb 165.93799(11) 25.6(22) s 1,354.19 MeV
167Tb 166.94005(43)# 19.4(27) s 3/2+# 1,352.95 MeV
168Tb 167.94364(54)# 8.2(13) s 4-# 1,361.02 MeV
169Tb 168.94622(64)# 2# s 3/2+# 1,369.09 MeV
170Tb 169.95025(75)# 3# s 1,367.84 MeV
171Tb 170.95330(86)# 500# ms 3/2+# 1,375.92 MeV
Los valores marcados con # no son puramente derivan de los datos experimentales, pero al menos en parte, de las tendencias sistemáticas. Hace girar con débiles argumentos de asignación se incluyen entre paréntesis. 12

Abundancia

Tierra - Los compuestos de origen: phosphates 13
Tierra - Agua de mar: 0.00000014 mg/L 14
Tierra -  Corteza:  1.2 mg/kg = 0.00012% 14
Tierra -  Total:  54 ppb 15
Planeta mercurio) -  Total:  41 ppb 15
Venus -  Total:  56 ppb 15
condritas - Total: 0.051 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 16

Compuestos

Información de seguridad


Ficha de datos de seguridad de materiales - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Para más información

Enlaces externos:

revistas:
(1) Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, pp 136-145.

Fuentes

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:31.
(2) - Folger, Tim. The Secret Ingredients of Everything. National Geographic, June 2011, p 140.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(5) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(6) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(12) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(13) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(14) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(15) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(16) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(17) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.