NÍQUEL

Introducción

Número atómico: 28
Grupo: 10 or VIII B
Peso atomico: 58.6934
Período: 4
Número CAS: 7440-02-0

Clasificación

chalcogen
halógeno
Gas noble
Lantanoides
Actinoides
Elemento de tierras raras
Platino Metal Group
transuranium
No hay isótopos estables
Sólido
Líquido
Gas
Sólido (Predicho)

Descripción • Usos / Función

Discovered by Cronstedt in 1751 in kupfernickel (niccolite). Nickel is found as a constituent in most meteoritesand often serves as one of the criteria for distinguishing a meteorite from other minerals. Iron meteorites, or siderites, may contain iron alloyed withfrom 5 to nearly 20% nickel. Nickel is obtained commercially from pentlandite and pyrrhotite of the Sudbury region of Ontario, a district that producesmuch of the world’s nickel. It is now thought that the Sudbury deposit is the result of an ancient meteorite impact. Other deposits of nickel are foundin Russia, New Caledonia, Australia, Cuba, Indonesia, and elsewhere. Nickel is silvery white and takes on a high polish. It is hard, malleable, ductile,somewhat ferromagnetic, and a fair conductor of heat and electricity. It belongs to the iron-cobalt group of metals and is chiefly valuable for the alloysit forms. It is extensively used for making stainless steel and other corrosion-resistant alloys such as Invar(R), Monel(R), Inconel(R), and the Hastelloys(R).Tubing made of a copper-nickel alloy is extensively used in making desalination plants for converting sea water into fresh water. Nickel is also nowused extensively in coinage and in making nickel steel for armor plate and burglar-proof vaults, and is a component in Nichrome®, Permalloy®, andconstantan. Nickel added to glass gives a green color. Nickel plating is often used to provide a protective coating for other metals, and finely dividednickel is a catalyst for hydrogenating vegetable oils. It is also used in ceramics, in the manufacture of Alnico magnets, and in the Edison® storagebattery. The sulfate and the oxides are important compounds. Natural nickel is a mixture of five stable isotopes; nineteen other unstable isotopes areknown. Nickel sulfide fume and dust is recognized as having carcinogenic potential. Nickel metal (99.9%) is priced at about $100/kg or less in largerquantities. 1

• "Stainless steels show high tensile strength and excellent resistance to corrosion. The most common kind contains 14-18% chromium and 7-9% nickel." 2
• "Miners of nickel ore have a high rate of nasal cancer." 3

Propiedades físicas

Punto de fusion:4*  1455 °C = 1728.15 K = 2651 °F
Punto de ebullición:4* 2913 °C = 3186.15 K = 5275.4 °F
Punto de sublimación:4 
Triple punto:4 
Punto crítico:4 
Densidad:5  8.90 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Configuración electronica

Configuración electronica: [Ar] 4s2 3d8
Bloquear: d
Ocupado más alto nivel de energía: 4
Electrones de valencia: 

Números cuánticos:

n = 3
ℓ = 2
m = 0
ms = -½

Vinculación

electronegatividad (escala de Pauling):6 1.91
Electropositivity (escala de Pauling): 2.09
Afinidad electronica:7 1.156 eV
estados de oxidación: +2,3
Función del trabajo:8 5.15 eV = 8.2503E-19 J

potencial de ionización   eV 9  kJ/mol  
1 7.6398    737.1
2 18.16884    1753.0
3 35.19    3395.3
4 54.9    5297.0
5 76.06    7338.7
6 108    10420.4
7 133    12832.5
8 162    15630.6
9 193    18621.7
potencial de ionización   eV 9  kJ/mol  
10 224.6    21670.6
11 321    30971.8
12 352    33962.8
13 384    37050.4
14 430    41488.7
15 464    44769.2
16 499    48146.2
17 571.08    55100.8
18 607.06    58572.4
potencial de ionización   eV 9  kJ/mol  
19 1541    148683.9
20 1648    159007.8
21 1756    169428.2
22 1894    182743.2
23 2011    194032.0
24 2131    205610.2
25 2295    221433.8
26 2399.2    231487.6
27 10288.8    992718.0
28 10775.4    1039667.8

termoquímica

Calor especifico: 0.444 J/g°C 10 = 26.060 J/mol°C = 0.106 cal/g°C = 6.228 cal/mol°C
Conductividad térmica: 90.7 (W/m)/K, 27°C 11
Calor de fusión: 17.47 kJ/mol 12 = 297.6 J/g
Calor de vaporización: 370.4 kJ/mol 13 = 6310.8 J/g
Estado de la materia Entalpía de formación (ΔHf°)14 entropía (S°)14 Energía libre de Gibbs (ΔGf°)14
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 7.14 29.87376 0 0
(g) 102.7 429.6968 43.519 182.083496 91.9 384.5096

isótopos

nucleido Masa 15 Media vida 15 spin nuclear 15 Energía de unión
48Ni 48.01975(54)# 10# ms [>500 ns] 0+ 347.82 MeV
49Ni 49.00966(43)# 13(4) ms [12(+5-3) ms] 7/2-# 365.20 MeV
50Ni 49.99593(28)# 9.1(18) ms 0+ 386.32 MeV
51Ni 50.98772(28)# 30# ms [>200 ns] 7/2-# 401.84 MeV
52Ni 51.97568(9)# 38(5) ms 0+ 421.09 MeV
53Ni 52.96847(17)# 45(15) ms (7/2-)# 435.68 MeV
54Ni 53.95791(5) 104(7) ms 0+ 454.00 MeV
55Ni 54.951330(12) 204.7(17) ms 7/2- 467.66 MeV
56Ni 55.942132(12) 6.075(10) d 0+ 484.11 MeV
57Ni 56.9397935(19) 35.60(6) h 3/2- 494.98 MeV
58Ni 57.9353429(7) ESTABLE 0+ 506.78 MeV
59Ni 58.9343467(7) 7.6(5)E+4 a 3/2- 515.78 MeV
60Ni 59.9307864(7) ESTABLE 0+ 527.58 MeV
61Ni 60.9310560(7) ESTABLE 3/2- 534.72 MeV
62Ni 61.9283451(6) ESTABLE 0+ 545.58 MeV
63Ni 62.9296694(6) 100.1(20) a 1/2- 552.72 MeV
64Ni 63.9279660(7) ESTABLE 0+ 562.66 MeV
65Ni 64.9300843(7) 2.5172(3) h 5/2- 567.93 MeV
66Ni 65.9291393(15) 54.6(3) h 0+ 576.94 MeV
67Ni 66.931569(3) 21(1) s 1/2- 583.14 MeV
68Ni 67.931869(3) 29(2) s 0+ 591.22 MeV
69Ni 68.935610(4) 11.5(3) s 9/2+ 595.56 MeV
70Ni 69.93650(37) 6.0(3) s 0+ 602.70 MeV
71Ni 70.94074(40) 2.56(3) s 1/2-# 607.05 MeV
72Ni 71.94209(47) 1.57(5) s 0+ 613.25 MeV
73Ni 72.94647(32)# 0.84(3) s (9/2+) 617.60 MeV
74Ni 73.94807(43)# 0.68(18) s 0+ 623.81 MeV
75Ni 74.95287(43)# 0.6(2) s (7/2+)# 628.15 MeV
76Ni 75.95533(97)# 470(390) ms [0.24(+55-24) s] 0+ 633.43 MeV
77Ni 76.96055(54)# 300# ms [>300 ns] 9/2+# 636.84 MeV
78Ni 77.96318(118)# 120# ms [>300 ns] 0+ 642.12 MeV
Los valores marcados con # no son puramente derivan de los datos experimentales, pero al menos en parte, de las tendencias sistemáticas. Hace girar con débiles argumentos de asignación se incluyen entre paréntesis. 15

Abundancia

Tierra - Los compuestos de origen: sulfides 16
Tierra - Agua de mar: 0.00056 mg/L 17
Tierra -  Corteza:  84 mg/kg = 0.0084% 17
Tierra -  Manto:  0.3% 18
Tierra -  Núcleo:  8.5% 18
Tierra -  litosfera:  0.01% 19
Tierra -  Total:  1.82% 20
Planeta mercurio) -  Total:  3.66% 20
Venus -  Total:  1.77 % 20
Universo -  Total:  0.006% 18
condritas - Total: 4×104 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 21
Cuerpo humano - Total: 0.00001% 22

Compuestos

Precios





Información de seguridad


Ficha de datos de seguridad de materiales - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Para más información

Enlaces externos:

revistas:
(1) John Trowbridge and Samuel Sheldon, Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci. 24, 181-184 (1889)

Fuentes

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:20.
(2) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 912.
(3) - Neighbors, Marianne and Tannehill-Jones, Ruth. Human Diseases, 2nd ed.; Thomson Delmar Learning: Clifton Park, NY, 2006; p 32.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(6) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(8) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(14) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(15) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(16) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(17) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(18) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 962.
(19) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 964.
(20) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(21) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.
(22) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 7:17.