YODO

Introducción

Número atómico: 53
Grupo: 17 or VII A
Peso atomico: 126.90447
Período: 5
Número CAS: 7553-56-2

Clasificación

chalcogen
halógeno
Gas noble
Lantanoides
Actinoides
Elemento de tierras raras
Platino Metal Group
transuranium
No hay isótopos estables
Sólido
Líquido
Gas
Sólido (Predicho)

Descripción • Usos / Función

Discovered by Courtois in 1811. Iodine, a halogen, occurs sparingly in the form of iodides in sea water from which it is assimilatedby seaweeds, in Chilean saltpeter and nitrate-bearing earth, known as caliche in brines from old sea deposits, and in brackish waters from oil and saltwells. Ultrapure iodine can be obtained from the reaction of potassium iodide with copper sulfate. Several other methods of isolating the element areknown. Iodine is a bluish-black, lustrous solid, volatilizing at ordinary temperatures into a blue-violet gas with an irritating odor; it forms compoundswith many elements, but is less active than the other halogens, which displace it from iodides. Iodine exhibits some metallic-like properties. It dissolvesreadily in chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, or carbon disulfide to form beautiful purple solutions. It is only slightly soluble in water. Iodine compoundsare important in organic chemistry and very useful in medicine. Forty two isotopes and isomers are recognized. Only one stable isotope, iodine-127 is foundin nature. The artificial radioisotope iodine-131, with a half-life of 8 days, has been used in treating the thyroid gland. The most common compounds are theiodides of sodium and potassium (KI) and the iodates (KIO3). Lack of iodine is the cause of goiter. Iodides, and thyroxin which contains iodine, areused internally in medicine, and a solution of KI and iodine in alcohol is used for external wounds. Potassium iodide finds use in photography. Thedeep blue color with starch solution is characteristic of the free element. Care should be taken in handling and using iodine, as contact with the skincan cause lesions; iodine vapor is intensely irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes. Elemental iodine costs about 25 to 75¢/g depending on purityand quantity. 1

• "thyroid hormones...Iodine deficiency remains a major cause of mental retardation and infant mortality and morbidity throughout the world - even though iodine was shown to be essential for human health nearly 100 years ago" 2
• "has been used as an antiseptic and germicide in the form of tincture of iodine, a solution in alcohol." 3
• "About half of the iodine produced commercially is used in the preparation of a variety of organic compounds. The rest is used to prepare inorganic iodides. Potassium iodide is added to animal feeds and to salt (iodized salt) to supply iodide ion as a nutrient. Silver iodide (with silver chloride and silver bromide) is used to make photographic film." 4

Propiedades físicas

Densidad:5  4.933 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Configuración electronica

Configuración electronica: [Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p5
Bloquear: p
Ocupado más alto nivel de energía: 5
Electrones de valencia: 7

Números cuánticos:

n = 5
ℓ = 1
m = 0
ms = -½

Vinculación

electronegatividad (escala de Pauling):6 2.66
Electropositivity (escala de Pauling): 1.34
Afinidad electronica:7 3.059037 eV
estados de oxidación: -1,+5,7

potencial de ionización   eV 8  kJ/mol  
1 10.45126    1008.4
potencial de ionización   eV 8  kJ/mol  
2 19.1313    1845.9
potencial de ionización   eV 8  kJ/mol  
3 33    3184.0

termoquímica

Calor especifico: 0.145 J/g°C 9 = 18.401 J/mol°C = 0.035 cal/g°C = 4.398 cal/mol°C
Conductividad térmica: 0.449 (W/m)/K, 27°C 10
Calor de fusión: 7.824 kJ/mol 11 = 61.7 J/g
Calor de vaporización: 20.752 kJ/mol 12 = 163.5 J/g
Estado de la materia Entalpía de formación (ΔHf°)13 entropía (S°)13 Energía libre de Gibbs (ΔGf°)13
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 27.757 116.135288 0 0
(g) 14.923 62.437832 62.28 260.57952 4.627 19.359368

isótopos

nucleido Masa 14 Media vida 14 spin nuclear 14 Energía de unión
108I 107.94348(39)# 36(6) ms (1)# 886.13 MeV
109I 108.93815(11) 103(5) μs (5/2+) 903.51 MeV
110I 109.93524(33)# 650(20) ms 1+# 911.58 MeV
111I 110.93028(32)# 2.5(2) s (5/2+)# 919.65 MeV
112I 111.92797(23)# 3.42(11) s 937.04 MeV
113I 112.92364(6) 6.6(2) s 5/2+# 945.11 MeV
114I 113.92185(32)# 2.1(2) s 1+ 953.18 MeV
115I 114.91805(3) 1.3(2) min (5/2+)# 970.57 MeV
116I 115.91681(10) 2.91(15) s 1+ 978.64 MeV
117I 116.91365(3) 2.22(4) min (5/2)+ 986.71 MeV
118I 117.913074(21) 13.7(5) min 2- 994.78 MeV
119I 118.91007(3) 19.1(4) min 5/2+ 1,002.86 MeV
120I 119.910048(19) 81.6(2) min 2- 1,010.93 MeV
121I 120.907367(11) 2.12(1) h 5/2+ 1,028.31 MeV
122I 121.907589(6) 3.63(6) min 1+ 1,036.38 MeV
123I 122.905589(4) 13.2235(19) h 5/2+ 1,044.46 MeV
124I 123.9062099(25) 4.1760(3) d 2- 1,052.53 MeV
125I 124.9046302(16) 59.400(10) d 5/2+ 1,060.60 MeV
126I 125.905624(4) 12.93(5) d 2- 1,068.67 MeV
127I 126.904473(4) ESTABLE 5/2+ 1,076.74 MeV
128I 127.905809(4) 24.99(2) min 1+ 1,084.81 MeV
129I 128.904988(3) 1.57(4)E+7 a 7/2+ 1,092.88 MeV
130I 129.906674(3) 12.36(1) h 5+ 1,100.95 MeV
131I 130.9061246(12) 8.02070(11) d 7/2+ 1,109.03 MeV
132I 131.907997(6) 2.295(13) h 4+ 1,117.10 MeV
133I 132.907797(5) 20.8(1) h 7/2+ 1,125.17 MeV
134I 133.909744(9) 52.5(2) min (4)+ 1,133.24 MeV
135I 134.910048(8) 6.57(2) h 7/2+ 1,132.00 MeV
136I 135.91465(5) 83.4(10) s (1-) 1,140.07 MeV
137I 136.917871(30) 24.13(12) s (7/2+) 1,148.14 MeV
138I 137.92235(9) 6.23(3) s (2-) 1,146.90 MeV
139I 138.92610(3) 2.282(10) s 7/2+# 1,154.97 MeV
140I 139.93100(21)# 860(40) ms (3)(-#) 1,153.72 MeV
141I 140.93503(21)# 430(20) ms 7/2+# 1,161.79 MeV
142I 141.94018(43)# ~200 ms 2-# 1,160.55 MeV
143I 142.94456(43)# 100# ms [>300 ns] 7/2+# 1,168.62 MeV
144I 143.94999(54)# 50# ms [>300 ns] 1-# 1,176.69 MeV
Los valores marcados con # no son puramente derivan de los datos experimentales, pero al menos en parte, de las tendencias sistemáticas. Hace girar con débiles argumentos de asignación se incluyen entre paréntesis. 14

reacciones

Abundancia

Tierra - Los compuestos de origen: halide salts and brines 17
Tierra - Agua de mar: 0.06 mg/L 18
Tierra -  Corteza:  0.45 mg/kg = 0.000045% 18
Tierra -  Total:  13.6 ppb 19
Planeta mercurio) -  Total:  0.16 ppb 19
Venus -  Total:  14.3 ppb 19
condritas - Total: 0.051 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 20
Cuerpo humano - Total: 0.00002% 21

Compuestos

Información de seguridad


Ficha de datos de seguridad de materiales - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Para más información

Enlaces externos:

Fuentes

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:16.
(2) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 926.
(3) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 947.
(4) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 585.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(6) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(13) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(14) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(15) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 77.
(16) - Kotz, John C. and Treichel, Paul. Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity 4th ed.; Thomson Brooks/Cole: Belmont, CA, 1999; pp 161, 173.
(17) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(18) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(19) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(20) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.
(21) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 7:17.