COBALTO

Introducción

Número atómico: 27
Grupo: 9 or VIII B
Peso atomico: 58.9332
Período: 4
Número CAS: 7440-48-4

Clasificación

chalcogen
halógeno
Gas noble
Lantanoides
Actinoides
Elemento de tierras raras
Platino Metal Group
transuranium
No hay isótopos estables
Sólido
Líquido
Gas
Sólido (Predicho)

Descripción • Usos / Función

Discovered by Brandt about 1735. Cobalt occurs in the mineral cobaltite, smaltite, and erythrite, and is often associatedwith nickel, silver, lead, copper, and iron ores, from which it is most frequently obtained as a by-product. It is also present in meteorites. Importantore deposits are found in Zaire, Morocco, and Canada. The U.S. Geological Survey has announced that the bottom of the north central Pacific Oceanmay have cobalt-rich deposits at relatively shallow depths in waters close to the Hawaiian Islands and other U.S. Pacific territories. Cobalt is a brittle,hard metal, closely resembling iron and nickel in appearance. It has a magnetic permeability of about two thirds that of iron. Cobalt tends to exist asa mixture of two allotropes over a wide temperature range; the beta-form predominates below 400°C, and the alpha above that temperature. The transformationis sluggish and accounts in part for the wide variation in reported data on physical properties of cobalt. It is alloyed with iron, nickel and other metalsto make Alnico, an alloy of unusual magnetic strength with many important uses. Stellite alloys, containing cobalt, chromium, and tungsten, are usedfor high-speed, heavy-duty, high temperature cutting tools, and for dies. Cobalt is also used in other magnet steels and stainless steels, and in alloysused in jet turbines and gas turbine generators. The metal is used in electroplating because of its appearance, hardness, and resistance to oxidation.The salts have been used for centuries for the production of brilliant and permanent blue colors in porcelain, glass, pottery, tiles, and enamels. It isthe principal ingredient in Sevre’s and Thenard’s blue. A solution of the chloride (CoCl2 · 6H2O) is used as sympathetic ink. The cobalt ammines areof interest; the oxide and the nitrate are important. Cobalt carefully used in the form of the chloride, sulfate, acetate, or nitrate has been found effectivein correcting a certain mineral deficiency disease in animals. Soils should contain 0.13 to 0.30 ppm of cobalt for proper animal nutrition. Cobalt is foundin Vitamin B-12, which is essential for human nutrition. Cobalt-60, an artificial isotope, is an important gamma ray source, and is extensively usedas a tracer and a radiotherapeutic agent. Single compact sources of Cobalt-60 vary from about $1 to $10/curie, depending on quantity and specificactivity. Twenty six isotopes and isomers of cobalt are known. 1

• "essential for vitamin B12, but the human body cannot make vitamin B12 from cobalt and thus requires the performed vitamin from dietary sources." 2

Propiedades físicas

Punto de fusion:3*  1495 °C = 1768.15 K = 2723 °F
Punto de ebullición:3* 2927 °C = 3200.15 K = 5300.6 °F
Punto de sublimación:3 
Triple punto:3 
Punto crítico:3 
Densidad:4  8.86 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Configuración electronica

Configuración electronica: [Ar] 4s2 3d7
Bloquear: d
Ocupado más alto nivel de energía: 4
Electrones de valencia: 

Números cuánticos:

n = 3
ℓ = 2
m = -1
ms = -½

Vinculación

electronegatividad (escala de Pauling):5 1.88
Electropositivity (escala de Pauling): 2.12
Afinidad electronica:6 0.662 eV
estados de oxidación: +2,3
Función del trabajo:7 4.70 eV = 7.5294E-19 J

potencial de ionización   eV 8  kJ/mol  
1 7.881    760.4
2 17.083    1648.3
3 33.5    3232.3
4 51.3    4949.7
5 79.5    7670.6
6 102    9841.5
7 128.9    12437.0
8 157.8    15225.4
9 186.13    17958.8
potencial de ionización   eV 8  kJ/mol  
10 275.4    26572.1
11 305    29428.0
12 336    32419.1
13 379    36567.9
14 411    39655.5
15 444    42839.5
16 511.96    49396.6
17 546.58    52736.9
18 1397.2    134809.3
potencial de ionización   eV 8  kJ/mol  
19 1504.6    145171.8
20 1603    154666.0
21 1735    167402.0
22 1846    178111.9
23 1962    189304.2
24 2119    204452.4
25 2219    214100.9
26 9544.1    920865.4
27 10012.12    966022.5

termoquímica

Calor especifico: 0.421 J/g°C 9 = 24.811 J/mol°C = 0.101 cal/g°C = 5.930 cal/mol°C
Conductividad térmica: 100 (W/m)/K, 27°C 10
Calor de fusión: 16.19 kJ/mol 11 = 274.7 J/g
Calor de vaporización: 376.5 kJ/mol 12 = 6388.6 J/g
Estado de la materia Entalpía de formación (ΔHf°)13 entropía (S°)13 Energía libre de Gibbs (ΔGf°)13
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s hexagonal) 0 0 7.18 30.04112 0 0
(s face centered cubic) 0.11 0.46024 7.34 30.71056 0.06 0.25104
(g) -26.42 -110.54128 47.30 197.9032 -32.81 -137.27704

isótopos

nucleido Masa 14 Media vida 14 spin nuclear 14 Energía de unión
47Co 47.01149(54)# 7/2-# 347.98 MeV
48Co 48.00176(43)# 6+# 365.37 MeV
49Co 48.98972(28)# <35 ns 7/2-# 384.62 MeV
50Co 49.98154(18)# 44(4) ms (6+) 400.14 MeV
51Co 50.97072(16)# 60# ms [>200 ns] 7/2-# 418.46 MeV
52Co 51.96359(7)# 115(23) ms (6+) 433.05 MeV
53Co 52.954219(19) 242(8) ms 7/2-# 449.50 MeV
54Co 53.9484596(8) 193.28(7) ms 0+ 463.16 MeV
55Co 54.9419990(8) 17.53(3) h 7/2- 477.76 MeV
56Co 55.9398393(23) 77.233(27) d 4+ 487.69 MeV
57Co 56.9362914(8) 271.74(6) d 7/2- 498.56 MeV
58Co 57.9357528(13) 70.86(6) d 2+ 507.56 MeV
59Co 58.9331950(7) ESTABLE 7/2- 517.49 MeV
60Co 59.9338171(7) 5.2713(8) a 5+ 525.56 MeV
61Co 60.9324758(10) 1.650(5) h 7/2- 534.57 MeV
62Co 61.934051(21) 1.50(4) min 2+ 540.78 MeV
63Co 62.933612(21) 26.9(4) s 7/2- 549.78 MeV
64Co 63.935810(21) 0.30(3) s 1+ 555.99 MeV
65Co 64.936478(14) 1.20(6) s (7/2)- 563.13 MeV
66Co 65.93976(27) 0.18(1) s (3+) 568.40 MeV
67Co 66.94089(34) 0.425(20) s (7/2-)# 575.54 MeV
68Co 67.94487(34) 0.199(21) s (7-) 579.89 MeV
69Co 68.94632(36) 227(13) ms 7/2-# 586.10 MeV
70Co 69.9510(9) 119(6) ms (6-) 589.51 MeV
71Co 70.9529(9) 97(2) ms 7/2-# 596.65 MeV
72Co 71.95781(64)# 62(3) ms (6-,7-) 600.06 MeV
73Co 72.96024(75)# 41(4) ms 7/2-# 605.34 MeV
74Co 73.96538(86)# 50# ms [>300 ns] 0+ 608.76 MeV
75Co 74.96833(86)# 40# ms [>300 ns] 7/2-# 614.03 MeV
Los valores marcados con # no son puramente derivan de los datos experimentales, pero al menos en parte, de las tendencias sistemáticas. Hace girar con débiles argumentos de asignación se incluyen entre paréntesis. 14

reacciones

2 Al (s) + 3 CoCl2 (aq) → 2 AlCl3 (aq) + 3 Co (s) 
Al2O3 + 3 C + 3 Cl2 → 2 AlCl3 + 3 CO  15
Bi2O3 (s) + 3 C (s graphite) → 3 Bi (s) + 3 CO (g) 16
C (s graphite) + 1 H2O (g) → CO (g) + H2 (g) 17
2 C (s graphite) + 1 O2 (g) → 2 CO (g) 18
C3H8 (g propane) + 3 H2O (g) → 3 CO (g) + 7 H2 (g) 19
2 Ca3(PO4)2 (s beta) + 6 SiO2 (s quartz) + 10 C (s graphite) → P4 (g) + 6 CaSiO3 (ℓ) + 10 CO (g) 20
CaO (s) + 3 C (s) → CaC2 (s) + CO (g) 21
CH3OH (ℓ methanol) → 2 H2 (g) + CO (g) 22
CH3OH (ℓ methanol) + 1 CO (g) → CH3COOH (ℓ) 23
2 CH3SH + 1 CO → CH3COSCH3 + H2S  24
2 CH4 (g methane) + 1 O2 (g) → 2 CO (g) + 4 H2 (g) 25
CH4 (g methane) + 1 H2O (g) → CO (g) + 3 H2 (g) 25
2 CO (g) + 1 O2 (g) → 2 CO2 (g) 26
CO2 (g) + 1 C (s) → 2 CO (g) 27
Fe2O3 (s hematite) + 3 CO (g) → 2 Fe (s alpha) + 3 CO2 (g) 28
Fe2O3 (s hematite) + 3 C (s graphite) → 2 Fe (s alpha) + 3 CO (g) 29
FeO (s) + 1 CO (g) → Fe (s alpha) + CO2 (g) 30
FeO (s) + 1 C (s graphite) → Fe (s alpha) + CO (g) 30
H2O (g) + 1 CO (g) → H2 (g) + CO2 (g) 31
HCOOH (ℓ) → H2O (ℓ) + CO (g) 32
Na2SO4 (s) + 4 C (s graphite) → Na2S (s) + 4 CO (g) 33
SiO2 (s quartz) + 2 C (s graphite) → Si (ℓ) + 2 CO (g) 34
SiO2 (g) + 2 C (s graphite) + 2 Cl2 (g) → SiCl4 (g) + 2 CO (g) 35
2 TiO2 (s rutile) + 3 C (s graphite) + 4 Cl2 (g) → 2 TiCl4 (g) + CO2 (g) + 2 CO (g) 36
ZnO + 1 C → Zn + CO  37
ZnO (s) + 1 CO (g) → Zn (s) + CO2 (g) 38
2 Ca3(PO4)2 (s beta) + 6 SiO2 (s quartz) + 10 C (s graphite) → P4 (g) + 6 CaSiO3 (s wollastonite) + 10 CO (g) 39
13 C (s graphite) + 3 Cr2O3 (s) → 2 Cr3C2 (s) + 9 CO (g) 40

Abundancia

Tierra - Los compuestos de origen: sulfides 41
Tierra - Agua de mar: 0.00002 mg/L 42
Tierra -  Corteza:  25 mg/kg = 0.0025% 42
Tierra -  Manto:  0.04% 43
Tierra -  Núcleo:  0.6% 43
Tierra -  litosfera:  0.003% 44
Tierra -  Total:  840 ppm 45
Planeta mercurio) -  Total:  1690 ppm 45
Venus -  Total:  820 ppm 45
condritas - Total: 1300 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 46
Cuerpo humano - Total: 0.000002% 47

Compuestos

Precios





Información de seguridad


Ficha de datos de seguridad de materiales - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Para más información

Enlaces externos:

Fuentes

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